The Lean-Green BOPSE Indicator to Assess Efficiency and Sustainability

  • M. Florentina AbreuEmail author
  • Anabela Carvalho AlvesEmail author
  • Francisco MoreiraEmail author


Over the years, companies have been progressing their management strategies and transforming their production systems to cope with the pressing environmental challenges and remain competitive, prosper and meet the market demands. It is no longer enough to only satisfy the demand. The companies face a new transformation on the way of “doing things”, being it the way performance and efficiency is improved, or its relationship with all the stakeholders. Lean manufacturing and eco-efficiency propose a setting for progressively reducing wastes and environmental impacts. Although Lean Production was not developed to directly tackle sustainability issues, its principles and practices convey benefits that could be put, unquestionably, under the umbrella of Green and resulting in synergies known as the Lean-Green link. This chapter aims to present the Business Overall Performance and Sustainability Effectiveness (BOPSE) indicator, which is intended to measure the companies’ Lean-Green compliance. The BOPSE indicator is an integrated metric on companies’ operational performance and sustainability conformity. This indicator exploits the Lean-Green production synergies and is operationalized through an indicator that aggregates and combines Lean production and Green production features. This indicator weaves a number of sustainability issues, spread over its three dimensions, with those encompassed by the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) indicator. Therefore, the BOPSE indicator intends to assess the effectiveness of the businesses grounded on operational performance and sustainability compliance, aiming at identifying both specific limitations and broader opportunities for the global improvement of the companies. Hence, the BOPSE indicator drives companies in their way to meet some of 17 sustainable development goals, namely the 8th—“Decent work and economic growth”, and the 12th—“Responsible consumption and production” sustainable development goals.



This work has been supported by COMPETE: POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007043 and FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the Project Scope: UID/CEC/00319/2013.


  1. Abreu, M. F., Alves, A. C., & Moreira, F. (2017). Lean-green models for eco-efficient and sustainable production. Energy. Retrieved from
  2. Abreu-Ledón, R., Luján-García, D. E., Garrido-Vega, P., & Escobar-Pérez, B. (2018). A meta-analytic study of the impact of Lean Production on business performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 200(March), 83–102.
  3. Almeanazel, O. T. R. (2010). Total productive maintenance review and overall equipment. Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, 4(4), 517–522.Google Scholar
  4. Alves, A., Moreira, F., Abreu, F., & Colombo, C. (2016). Sustainability, lean and eco-efficiency symbioses. In M. Peris-Ortiz, J. J. Ferreira, L. Farinha, & N. O. Fernandes (Eds.), Multiple Helix Ecosystems for Sustainable Competitiveness—Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge management. Cham: Springer International Publishing. Retrieved from
  5. APA. (2007). Sistema de Indicadores de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (SIDS), Protugal.Google Scholar
  6. Ayres, R. U., Van Den Bergh, J. C. J. M., & Gowdy, J. M. (1998). Viewpoint: Weak versus strong sustainability. Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers No 98-103/3, Tinbergen Institute.Google Scholar
  7. Bamber, C. J., Castka, P., Sharp, J. M., & Motara, Y. (2003). Cross-functional team working for overall equipment effectiveness (OEE). Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, 9(3), 223–238. Scholar
  8. BCSD. (1993). Getting eco-efficient: How can business contribute to sustainable development? Report of the BCSD First Antwerp Eco-Efficiency Workshop Business Council for Sustainable Development, Geneva.Google Scholar
  9. Boggia, A., Massei, G., Paolotti, L., Rocchi, L., & Schiavi, F. (2018, December). A model for measuring the environmental sustainability of events. Journal of Environmental Management, 206, 836–845.
  10. Borchardt, M., Wendt, M. H., Pereira, G. M., & Sellitto, M. A. (2011). Redesign of a component based on ecodesign practices: Environmental impact and cost reduction achievements. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(1), 49–57. Scholar
  11. Bradbury, H. (2003). Sustaining inner and outer worlds: A whole-systems approach to developing sustainable business practices in management. Journal of Management Education, 27(2), 172–187. Scholar
  12. Bréchet, T., & Ly, S. (2013). The many traps of green technology promotion. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 15(1), 73–91. Scholar
  13. Caldera, H. T. S., Desha, C., & Dawes, L. (2017). Exploring the role of lean thinking in sustainable business practice: A systematic literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 1546–1565. Scholar
  14. Chaplin, L., & O’Rourke, S. T. J. (2018). Could lean and green be the driver to integrate business improvement throughout the organisation? International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 67(1).
  15. Chen, L., Tang, O., & Feldmann, A. (2015). Applying GRI reports for the investigation of environmental management practices and company performance in Sweden, China and India. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 36–46. Scholar
  16. Cherrafi, A., Elfezazi, S., Chiarini, A., Mokhlis, A., & Benhida, K. (2016). The integration of lean manufacturing, Six Sigma and sustainability: A literature review and future research directions for developing a specific model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 139, 828–846. Scholar
  17. Ciccullo, F., Pero, M., Caridi, M., Gosling, J., & Purvis, L. (2018). Integrating the environmental and social sustainability pillars into the lean and agile supply chain management paradigms: A literature review and future research directions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 2336–2350. Scholar
  18. Colombo, C. R. (2004). Princípios teórico-práticos para formação de engenheiros civis: em perspectiva de uma construção civil voltada à sustentabilidade. Tese (Doutorado em Engenharia de Produção) - Centro tecnológico, Universidade Federal de Santa Catari.Google Scholar
  19. Colombo, C. R., Caires, S., & Alves, A. C. (2017). Universidade Cidadã: Entendendo e Construindo Conceitos rumo a um Novo Paradigma de Responsabilidade Social Universitária. PT: Porto.Google Scholar
  20. Costanza, R. (1991). Ecological economics: The science and management of sustainability. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Cowger, G. (2016). Half measures gets less than half results. Mechanical Engineering—The Magazine of ASME, 138(1), 30–35.Google Scholar
  22. De Treville, S., & Antonakis, J. (2006). Could lean production job design be intrinsically motivating? Contextual, configurational, and levels-of-analysis issues. Journal of Operations Management, 24(2), 99–123. Scholar
  23. DGA. (2000). Proposta para um Sistema de indicadores de desenvolvimento sustentável. Direcção Geral do Ambiente.Google Scholar
  24. Dhingra, R., Kress, R., & Upreti, G. (2014). Does lean mean green? Journal of Cleaner Production, 85, 1–7. Scholar
  25. Diegues, A. C. S. (1992). Desenvolvimento sustentável ou sociedades sustáveis: da crítica dos modelos aos novos paradigmas. São Paulo em Perspectiva, São Paulo, 6 (1–2), pp. 22–29, jan./jun. (In Portuguese).Google Scholar
  26. Donofrio, N. M., & Whitefoot, K. S., (eds.) (2015). Making value for America: Embracing the future of manufacturing, technology, and work. Foundational Best Practices for Making Value for America, National Academy of Engineering.Google Scholar
  27. Duarte, S., & Cruz-Machado, V. (2013). Modelling lean and green: A review from business models. International Journal of Lean Six Sigma, 4(3), 228–250. Scholar
  28. Dues, C. M., Tan, K. H., & Lim, M. (2013). Green as the new lean: How to use lean practices as a catalyst to greening your supply chain. Journal of Cleaner Production, 40, 93–100. Scholar
  29. Edwards, M. G. (2009). An integrative metatheory for organisational learning and sustainability in turbulent times. The Learning Organization, 16(3), 189–207. Scholar
  30. Elkington, J. (1998). Cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of the 21st century. Stoney Creek: New Society Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. Faulkner, W., & Badurdeen, F. (2014). Sustainable Value Stream Mapping (Sus-VSM): Methodology to visualize and assess manufacturing sustainability performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 85, 8–18.
  32. Fercoq, A., Lamouri, S., & Carbone, V. (2016). Lean/green integration focused on waste reduction techniques. Journal of Cleaner Production, 137, 567–578. Scholar
  33. Fernández-Viñé, M. B., Gómez-Navarro, T., & Capuz-Rizo, S. F. (2010). Eco-efficiency in the SMEs of Venezuela. Current status and future perspectives. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(8), 736–746.
  34. Fernández-Viñé, M. B., Gómez-Navarro, T., & Capuz-Rizo, S. F. (2013). Assessment of the public administration tools for the improvement of the eco-efficiency of small and medium sized enterprises. Journal of Cleaner Production, 47, 265–273. Scholar
  35. Found, P. A. (2009). Lean and low environmental impact manufacturing. In POMS 20th Annual Conference, 1–4 May 2009, Orlando, FL, U.S.A.
  36. Galeazzo, A., Furlan, A., & Vinelli, A. (2014). Lean and green in action: interdependencies and performance of pollution prevention projects. Journal of Cleaner Production, 85, 191–200. Scholar
  37. Gandhi, N. S., Thanki, S. J., & Thakkar, J. J. (2018). Ranking of drivers for integrated lean-green manufacturing for Indian manufacturing SMEs. Journal of Cleaner Production, 171, 675–689. Scholar
  38. Garza-Reyes, J. A. (2015). Lean and green—A systematic review of the state of the art literature. Journal of Cleaner Production, 102, 18–29. Scholar
  39. Gimenez, C., Sierra, V., & Rodon, J. (2012). Sustainable operations: Their impact on the triple bottom line. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 149–159. Scholar
  40. Gola, A., & Nieoczym, A. (2017, January). Application of OEE coefficient for manufacturing lines reliability improvement. In Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Management Science and Management Innovation (MSMI 2017).
  41. Greco, G., Sciulli, N., & D’Onza, G. (2015). The influence of stakeholder engagement on sustainability reporting: Evidence from Italian local councils. Public Management Review, 17(4), 465–488. Scholar
  42. GRI. (2016). Global reporting initiative. Retrieved October, 2016, from
  43. Gupta, V., Narayanamurthy, G., & Acharya, P. (2018). Can lean lead to green? Assessment of radial tyre manufacturing processes using system dynamics modelling. Computers and Operations Research, 89.
  44. Hajmohammad, S., Vachon, S., Klassen, R. D., & Gavronski, I. (2013). Lean management and supply management: Their role in green practices and performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 39, 312–320. Scholar
  45. Harik, R., Hachem, W. E. L., Medini, K., & Bernard, A. (2015). Towards a holistic sustainability index for measuring sustainability of manufacturing companies. International Journal of Production Research, 53(13), 4117–4139. Scholar
  46. Hart, S. L. (1995). A natural-resource-based view of the firm. Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 986–1014. Scholar
  47. Helleno, A. L., de Moraes, A. J. I., & Simon, A. T. (2017). Integrating sustainability indicators and Lean Manufacturing to assess manufacturing processes: Application case studies in Brazilian industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 153, 405–416.
  48. Hofer, C., Eroglu, C., & Hofer, A. R. (2012). The effect of lean production on financial performance: The mediating role of inventory leanness. International Journal of Production Economics, 138(2), 242–253.
  49. IST. (2013). Índice de Sustentabilidade Empresarial: Conceito e Metodologia.Google Scholar
  50. Jasti, N. V. K., & Kodali, R. (2015). Lean production: Literature review and trends. International Journal of Production Research, 53(3), 867–885. Scholar
  51. Jonsson, P., & Lesshammar, M. (1999). Evaluation and improvement of manufacturing performance measurement systems—The role of OEE. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 19(1), 55–78. Scholar
  52. Kim, D. B., Shin, S.-J., Shao, G., & Brodsky, A. (2015). A decision-guidance framework for sustainability performance analysis of manufacturing processes. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 78(9–12), 1455–1471. Scholar
  53. Klassen, R. D. (2000). Just-in-time manufacturing and pollution prevention generate mutual benefits in the furniture industry, interfaces. Interfaces, 30(3), 95–106. Scholar
  54. Koskela, M., & Vehmas, J. (2012). Defining eco-efficiency: A case study on the finnish forest industry. Business Strategy and the Environment, 21(8), 546–566. Scholar
  55. Kuhlman, T., & Farrington, J. (2010). What is sustainability? Sustainability, 2(11), 3436–3448. Scholar
  56. Lai, W.-H., Lin, C.-C., & Wang, T.-C. (2015). Exploring the interoperability of innovation capability and corporate sustainability. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 867–871. Scholar
  57. Larson, T., & Greenwood, R. (2004). Perfect complements: Synergies between lean production and eco-sustainability initiatives. Environmental Quality Management, 13(4), 27–36. Scholar
  58. Lewis, M. A. (2000). Lean production and sustainable competitive advantage. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 20(8), 959–978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liker, J. K. (2004). The Toyota way: 14 management principles from the world’s greatest manufacturer. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.Google Scholar
  60. Luqmani, A., Leach, M., & Jesson, D. (2017). Factors behind sustainable business innovation: The case of a global carpet manufacturing company. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 24, 94–105. Scholar
  61. MAESTRI. (2015). MAESTRI—Total resource and energy efficiency management system for process industries. Retrieved from
  62. Maia, L. C., Alves, A. C., & Leão, C. P. (2013). Sustainable work environment with lean production in textile and clothing industry. International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management (IJIEM), 4(3), 183–190. Retrieved from ISSN.
  63. Martínez León, H. C., & Calvo-Amodio, J. (2017). Towards lean for sustainability: Understanding the interrelationships between lean and sustainability from a systems thinking perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 4384–4402. Scholar
  64. Martínez-Jurado, P. J., & Moyano-Fuentes, J. (2014). Lean management, supply chain management and sustainability: A literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 85, 134–150. Scholar
  65. Maxwell, J., Rothenberg, S., & Schenck, B. (1993). Does lean mean green: The implications of lean production for environmental management. International Motor Vehicle Program, July: MIT.Google Scholar
  66. Maxwell, J., Briscoe, F., Schenk, B., & Rothenberg, S. (1998). Case study: Honda of America Manufacturing Inc: Can lean production practices increase environmental performance? Environmental Quality Management, 8(1), 53–61. Scholar
  67. Moldavska, A., & Welo, T. (2017). The concept of sustainable manufacturing and its definitions: A content-analysis based literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 166, 744–755.
  68. Mollenkopf, D., Stolze, H., Tate, W., & Ueltschy, M. (2010). Green, lean, and global supply chains. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 40(1/2), 14–41. Scholar
  69. Moreira, F., Alves, A. C., & Sousa, R. M. (2010). Towards eco-efficient lean production systems. IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, 322, 100–108. Scholar
  70. Mourtzis, D., Fotia, S., & Vlachou, E. (2017). Lean rules extraction methodology for lean PSS design via key performance indicators monitoring. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 42, 233–243. Scholar
  71. Muchiri, P., & Pintelon, L. (2008). Performance measurement using overall equipment effectiveness (OEE): Literature review and practical application discussion. International Journal of Production Research, 46(13), 3517–3535. Scholar
  72. Munasinghe, M. (1993). Environmental economics and sustainable development. World Bank Environment, Paper no. 3, Part 1, Washington, DC, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  73. Munasinghe, M. (2012). Millennium consumption goals (MCGs) for Rio + 20 and beyond: A practical step towards global sustainability. Natural Resources Forum, 36(3), 202–212. Scholar
  74. Ohno, T. (1978). Toyota production system: Beyond large-scale production.Google Scholar
  75. Ohno, T. (1988). Toyota production system: Beyond large-scale production. New York: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  76. Pappas, E. (2012). A new system approach to sustainability: University responsibility for teaching sustainability in contexts. Journal of Sustainability Education, 3, 1–18.
  77. Pappas, E., Pappas, J., & Sweeney, D. (2015). Walking the walk: Conceptual foundations of the sustainable personality. Journal of Cleaner Production, 86, 323–334. Scholar
  78. Pearce, A., Pons, D., & Neitzert, T. (2018). Implementing lean—Outcomes from SME case studies. Operations Research Perspectives, 5, 94–104.
  79. Pedersen, C. S. (2018). The un sustainable development goals (SDGs) are a great gift to business! Procedia CIRP, 69(May), 21–24. Scholar
  80. Pelizzoli, M. L. (1999). A emergência do paradigma ecológico: reflexões ético-filosóficas para o século XXI (p. 121). Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes.Google Scholar
  81. Pojasek, R. B. (2008). Framing your lean-to-green effort. Environmental Quality Management, 18(1), 85–93. Scholar
  82. Prahalad, C. K. (2005). The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid. Revista Eletrônica de Estratégia & Negócios (Vol. 1). Wharton School Publishing.
  83. Qu, Y., Liu, Y., Nayak, R. R., & Li, M. (2015). Sustainable development of eco-industrial parks in China: Effects of managers’ environmental awareness on the relationships between practice and performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 87, 328–338. Scholar
  84. Ramos, A. R., Ferreira, J. C. E., Kumar, V., Garza-Reyes, J. A., & Cherrafi, A. (2018). A lean and cleaner production benchmarking method for sustainability assessment: A study of manufacturing companies in Brazil. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, 218–231. Scholar
  85. Reis, L. V., Kipper, L. M., Giraldo Velásquez, F. D., Hofmann, N., Frozza, R., Ocampo, S. A., et al. (2018). A model for lean and green integration and monitoring for the coffee sector. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 150, 62–73. Scholar
  86. Roberts, S. J. F., & Ball, P. D. (2014). Developing a library of sustainable manufacturing practices. In Procedia CIRP (Vol. 15).
  87. Rothenberg, S., Pil, F. K., & Maxwell, J. (2001). Lean, green, and the quest for superior environmental performance. Production and Operations Management, 10(3), 228–243. Scholar
  88. Rotmans, J. (2006). Tools for integrated sustainability assessment: A two-track approach. The Integrated Assessment Journal, 6(4), 35–57.Google Scholar
  89. Ruben, R. Ben, Vinodh, S., & Asokan, P. (2018). Lean Six Sigma with environmental focus: Review and framework. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 94(9–12).
  90. Ruiz-Benitez, R., López, C., & Real, J. C. (2017). Environmental benefits of lean, green and resilient supply chain management: The case of the aerospace sector. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167, 850–862.
  91. Sachs, I. (1986). Ecodesenvolvimento: crescer sem destruir. São Paulo: Vértice. (In Portuguese).Google Scholar
  92. Sachs, I. (1993). Estratégias de transição para o século XXI: desenvolvimento e meio ambiente. Trad. M. Lopes. São Paulo: Studio Nobel: Fundação do Desenvolvimento Administrativo (Fundap), pp. 24–27 (In Portuguese).Google Scholar
  93. Sachs, I. (1998). Debates. In: Vieira, Paulo Freire. et al. Desenvolvimento e meio ambiente no Brasil: a contribuição de Ignacy Sachs. Porto Alegre: Pallotti; Florianópolis: APED, pp. 57–58 (In Portuguese).Google Scholar
  94. Salvador, R., Piekarski, C. M., & de Francisco, A. C. (2017). Approach of the two-way influence between lean and green manufacturing and its connection to related organisational areas. International Journal of Production Management and Engineering, 5(2), 73. Scholar
  95. Sartal, A., Martinez-Senra, A. I., & Cruz-Machado, V. (2018). Are all lean principles equally eco-friendly? A panel data study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, 362–370. Scholar
  96. Sengupta, D., Mukherjee, R., & Sikdar, S. K. (2015). Environmental sustainability of countries using the UN MDG indicators by multivariate statistical methods. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, 34(1), 198–206. Scholar
  97. Shah, R., & Ward, P. T. (2003). Lean management: Context, practice bundles, and performance. Journal of Operations Management, 21, 129–149. Retrieved from
  98. Soliman, M., & Saurin, T. A. (2017). Lean production in complex socio-technical systems: A systematic literature review. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 45, 135–148. Scholar
  99. Soliman, M., Saurin, T. A., & Anzanello, M. J. (2018). The impacts of lean production on the complexity of socio-technical systems. International Journal of Production Economics, 197(January), 342–357. Scholar
  100. Souza, J. P. E., & Alves, J. M. (2018). Lean-integrated management system: A model for sustainability improvement. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 2667–2682. Scholar
  101. Soytas, M. A., & Atik, A. (2018). Central bank review does being international make companies more sustainable? Evidence Based on Corporate Sustainability Indices, 18(34), 34–36. Scholar
  102. Spear, S., & Bowen, H. K. (1999). Decoding the DNA of the Toyota production system. Harvard Business Review, 77(5), 96–106.Google Scholar
  103. Stacey, R. (2005). Organizational identity: The paradox of continuity and potential transformation at the same time. Group Analysis, 38(4), 477–494. Scholar
  104. Tasdemir, C., & Gazo, R. (2018). A systematic literature review for better understanding of lean driven sustainability. Sustainability, 10(7), 2544. Scholar
  105. Tseng, M.-L., Chiu, S. F., Tan, R. R., & Siriban-Manalang, A. B. (2013). Sustainable consumption and production for Asia: Sustainability through green design and practice. Journal of Cleaner Production, 40, 1–5. Scholar
  106. Ultramari, C. (2001). Da viabilidade de um desenvolvimento sustentável para as cidades. Retrieved March 25, 2001, from
  107. UNEP. (1996). Cleaner Production: A training resource package (1st ed.). Retrieved February 20, 2010, from
  108. United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development.Google Scholar
  109. US Department of Commerce. (2011). Sustainable manufacturing initiative. Retrieved from
  110. U.S. EPA. (2003). Lean manufacturing and the environment: Research on advanced manufacturing systems and the environment and recommendations for leveraging better environmental performance. United States Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  111. U.S. EPA. (2007). The lean and environment toolkit. United States Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  112. van den Bergh, J. C. J. M., & Gowdy, J. M. (2000). Evolutionary theories in environmental and resource economics: Approaches and applications. Environmental and Resource Economics, 17(1), 37.
  113. Verrier, B., Rose, B., & Caillaud, E. (2016). Lean and green strategy: The lean and green house and maturity deployment model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 116, 150–156. Scholar
  114. Vimal, K. E. K., Vinodh, S., & Muralidharan, R. (2015). An approach for evaluation of process sustainability using multi-grade fuzzy method. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 8(1), 40–54. Scholar
  115. Voss, C. A., Tsikiktsis, N., & Frohlich, M. (2002). Case research in operations management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 22, 195–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wagner, M. (2015). The link of environmental and economic performance: Drivers and limitations of sustainability integration. Journal of Business Research, 68(6), 1306–1317. Scholar
  117. Wakeford, J. J., Gebreeyesus, M., Ginbo, T., Yimer, K., Manzambi, O., Okereke, C., … Mulugetta, Y. (2017). Innovation for green industrialisation: An empirical assessment of innovation in Ethiopia’s cement, leather and textile sectors. Journal of Cleaner Production, 166, 503–511.
  118. WBCSD. (2000). Eco-efficiency: Creating more value with less impact.Google Scholar
  119. WBCSD. (2010). Vision 2050—The new agenda for business. WBCSD. Retrieved
  120. WBCSD/UNEP. (1998). Cleaner production and eco-efficiency: Complementary approaches to sustainable development (WBSCD and UNEP ed.).Google Scholar
  121. WCED. (1987). Our common future. United Nations: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  122. Weissbrod, I., & Bocken, N. M. P. (2017). Developing sustainable business experimentation capability—A case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 2663–2676. Scholar
  123. Wilkinson, A., Hill, M., & Gollan, P. (2001). The sustainability debate. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 21(12), 1492–1502.
  124. Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (1996). Lean thinking. New York: Siman & Schuster.Google Scholar
  125. Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (2005a). Lean consumption. Harvard Business Review, 83(3), 59–68.Google Scholar
  126. Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (2005b). Lean solutions: How companies and customers can create value and wealth together. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  127. Womack, J. P., Jones, D. T., & Roos, D. (1990). The machine that changed the world: The story of lean production. New York: Rawson Associates.Google Scholar
  128. Wu, J., & Wu, T. (2012). Sustainability indicators and indices: An overview. In Handbook of Sustainable Management, Chapter 4.
  129. Yang, M. G. (Mark), Hong, P., & Modi, S. B. (2011). Impact of lean manufacturing and environmental management on business performance: An empirical study of manufacturing firms. International Journal of Production Economics, 129(2), 251–261.
  130. Zackrisson, M., Kurdve, M., Shahbazi, S., Wiktorsson, M., Winroth, M., Landström, A., … Myrelid, A. (2017). Sustainability performance indicators at shop floor level in large manufacturing companies. Procedia CIRP, 61, 457–462.
  131. Zaman, A. U. (2015). A comprehensive review of the development of zero waste management: Lessons learned and guidelines. Journal of Cleaner Production, 91, 12–25. Scholar
  132. Zhang, X. L., Liu, C., Li, W., Evans, S., & Yin, Y. (2017). Effects of key enabling technologies for seru production on sustainable performance. Omega (UK), 66, 290–307. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Production and Systems, School of Engineering, ALGORITMI R&D CenterUniversity of MinhoGuimarãesPortugal

Personalised recommendations