Advertisement

Beverstad

  • Aaron Gurwitz
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in American Economic History book series (AEH)

Abstract

The profitability of buying beaver pelts in North America and selling them in Amsterdam provided the economic incentive which, along with geopolitical considerations, motivated the Dutch to establish New Netherlands as a permanent settlement in the Hudson River Valley with its capital, New Amsterdam, on Manhattan Island. This chapter, therefore, centers on the North American market for beaver pelts: the identities and situations of the sellers and buyers, the sources of demand and supply, the venues for and structures of transactions, the ancillary activities that developed to sustain the trade, its profitability, and that it was the settlement’s principal economic raison d’etre.

References

  1. Acemoglu, D. S. (2005). The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change, and Economic Growth. The American Economic Review, 95(3), 546–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, R. C. (2001). The Great Divergence in European Wages and Prices from the Middle Ages to the First World War. Explorations in Economic History, 38, 426.Google Scholar
  3. Bachman, V. C. (1969). Peltries or Plantations: The Economic Policies of the Dutch West India Company in New Netherland, 1623–1639. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  4. Bailyn, B. (2012). The Barbarous Years: The Conflict of Civilizations: 1600–1675. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Google Scholar
  5. Burrows, E. G. (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. Google Scholar
  6. Ceci, L. (1980a). The First Fiscal Crisis in New York. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 28(4), 839–847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ceci, L. (1980b). Locational Analysis of Historic Algonquin Sites in Coastal New York: A Preliminary Study (Research Report 19). Proceedings of the Conference on Northeastern Archaeology, Anthropology Research Report Series. https://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1006&context=anthro_res_rpt19nce.
  8. Ceci, L. (1982). The Value of Wampum Among the New York Iroquois: A Case Study in Artifact Analysis. Journal of Anthropological Research, 38(1), 97–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cohen, D. S. (1981). How Dutch Were the Dutch of New Netherland. New York History, 62(1), 47.Google Scholar
  10. Crawford, G. W. (1996). Migration in Prehistory: Princess Point and the Northern Iroquoian Case: Comments. American Antiquity, 61(4), 782–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crean, J. F. (1962). Hats and the Fur Trade. The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 28(3), 376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Davis, K. G. (1974). The North Atlantic World in the Seventeenth Century. St. Paul: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  13. de Vries, J., & van der Woude, A. (1997). The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gehring, C. T. (1992). Dutch and Indians in the Hudson Valley: The Early Period. Hudson River Valley Review, 9–25. http://www.hudsonrivervalley.org/review/pdfs/hvrr_9pt2_gehringandstarna.pdf.
  15. Grumet, R. S. (2011). First Manhattans: A Brief History of the Indians of Greater New York (63rd ed.). Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  16. Hart, J. P. (2008). Evolving the Three Sisters: The Changing Histories of Maize, Bean, and Squash in New York and the Greater Northeast. Current Northeast Paleoethnobotany, II, 87–88.Google Scholar
  17. Jacobs, J. (1998). Between Repression and Approval: Connivance and Tolerance in the Dutch Republic and in New Netherland. de Halve Maen, 71(3), 57.Google Scholar
  18. Jacobs, J. (2009). The Colony of New Netherland: A Dutch Settlement in Seventeenth-Century America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Juet, R. (1909). The Third Voyage of Master Henry Hudson. In J. Franklin (Ed.), Narratives of New Netherland, 1609–1664 (p. 14). New York: Scribner, Electronic Reproduction by General Books, 2009.Google Scholar
  20. Kemp, S. (1998). Perceiving Luxury and Necessity. Journal of Economic Psychology, 19(6), 591–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kugler, P. (2013). The Changing Regime of the Pound/Guilder Exchange Rate 1600–1912. Mimeo. Basel: University of Basel.Google Scholar
  22. Maddison, A. (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: Development Studies Center of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Malanima, P. (2009). Pre-modern European Economy: One Thousand Years (10th–19th Centuries). Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  24. McManus, J. C. (1972). An Economic Analysis of Indian Behavior in the North American Fur Trade. The Journal of Economic History, 32(1), 36–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morrison, K. M. (1984). The Embattled Northeast: The Elusive Ideal of Alliance in Abenaki-Euramerican Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
  26. Mullilgan, G. E., & Fik, T. J. (1994). Úsing Dummy Variables to Estimate Economic Base Multipliers. Land Economics, 46(3), 368–377.Google Scholar
  27. Norton, T. E. (1974). The Fur Trade in Colonial New York, 1686–1776. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Google Scholar
  28. O’Rourke, K. H., & Williamson, J. G. (1999). Globalization and History: The Evolution of the Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT University Press.Google Scholar
  29. O’Rourke, K. H., & Williamson, J. G. (2002). After Columbus: Explaining Europe’s Overseas Trade Boom, 1500–1800. The Journal of Economic History, 62(2), 452–453.Google Scholar
  30. Peña, E. S. (2001). The Role of Wampum Production at the Albany Almshouse. International Journal of Historical Archaeology, 5(2), 155–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pettegree, A. (1996). The Politics of Toleration in the Free Netherlands, 1572–1620. In O. P. Grell & B. Scribner (Eds.), Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation (pp. 182–198). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rapp, R. T. (1975). The Unmaking of the Mediterranean Trade Hegemony: International Trade Rivalry and the Commercial Revolution. The Journal of Economic History, 35(3), 499–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rich, E. (1960, February). Trade Habits and Economic Motivation Among the Indians of North America. The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 26(1), 50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rich, E., & Wilson, C. (2008). The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Vol 5, The Economic Organization of Early Modern Europe (Vol. 5). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Richter, D. K. (1992). The Ordeal of the Longhouse. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
  36. Rink, O. (1981). The People of New Netherland: Notes on Non-English Immigration to New York in the Seventeenth Century. New York History, 62(1), 15, 18.Google Scholar
  37. Rink, O. A. (1986). Holland on the Hudson: An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Romney, S. S. (2014). New Netherland Connections: Intimate Networks and Atlantic Ties in Seventeenth-Century America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shorto, R. (2004). The Island at the Center of the World: The Epic Story of Dutch Manhattan and the Forgotten Colony That Shaped America. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  40. Snow, D. R. (1995). Migration in Prehistory: The Northern Iroquoian Case. American Antiquity, 60(1), 59–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Starna, W. A. (2009). American Indian Villages to Dutch Farms: The Settling of Settled Lands in the Hudson Valley. In R. Panetta, Dutch New York: The Roots of Hudson Valley Culture (p. 74). New York: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Stewart, R. M. (1989). Trade and Exchange in Middle Atlantic Region Prehistory. Archaeology of Eastern North America, 17(Fall), 47–78.Google Scholar
  43. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1976). The Statistical History of the United States From Colonial Times to the Present (p. 1061). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  44. Van der Donck, A. (1993). A Dialogue Between a Netherland Patriot and a New Netherlander, on the Advantages of the County (J. Johnson, Trans.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Library Digital Edition. Google Scholar
  45. Van Zanden, J. L. (1995). Tracing the Beginning of the Kuznets Curve: Western Europe During the Early Modern Period. The Economic History Review, New Series, 48(4), 643–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aaron Gurwitz
    • 1
  1. 1.New YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations