• Sam Mullins


This chapter explores the migration routes that have been used by “terrorist asylum-seekers”, as well as the timing and methods of movement across international borders. The available data suggest that the majority of individuals in the sample began their journeys in Syria or Iraq and came to Europe by way of the Balkans, primarily during 2015. In this respect, the movement of terrorists is found to have mirrored the broader flow of migrants. The same can be said regarding methods of travel, with terrorists relying upon smugglers, sometimes utilizing false documents—or having no documents at all—and being exposed to substantial hardship and risks on their journey. Although infiltration of Europe remains the primary concern, the chapter concludes with a discussion of exfiltration by terrorist asylum-seekers, which, though much less common, also has serious implications for European and international security.


Terrorism Migration Asylum Refugees Border security Europe 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam Mullins
    • 1
  1. 1.George C. Marshall European Center for Security StudiesGarmisch-PartenkirchenGermany

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