Tuberculosis continues to be a major public health problem globally and is commonly encountered in areas with crowding, malnutrition, poor sanitation, and where access to preventive and curative health services is scarce or absent. Approximately 5% of patients will have musculoskeletal manifestations, and of those 50% will have spinal involvement. Most cases can be managed medically, although surgical treatment is indicated in many cases to establish the diagnosis, for failure to respond to medical management, and to treat a number of complications of the disease. Complications include joint destruction from arthritis, and pain and/or neurologic injury from abscesses and/or progressive kyphotic deformities due to spondylitis.
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