As populations in developing countries become more wealthy and live longer, the patterns and types of diseases affecting them also change. Musculoskeletal infections, unaddressed pediatric conditions, and injuries remain the most common problems seen today in orthopedic clinics, as they have in the past. However, successful development and better overall nutrition are significantly modifying the incidence, severity, and underlying causes of these orthopedic conditions. This is most evident in the epidemic of road traffic, farming, and industrial injuries in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These injuries, both fresh and neglected, are addressed elsewhere in this book. The other trend is an increase in those conditions less often seen previously: age- and lifestyle-related problems. These may look superficially like the same conditions encountered in a Western practice, but for many reasons, they present as more severe and more complex problems and take a greater toll on individuals, their families, and health systems.