Intraoperative Cholangiography (IOC): Important Aid in Biliary and Common Bile Duct Surgery

  • George BerciEmail author
  • Brian R. Davis


Incidence of bile duct injury is documented as high as 3000–3500 patients annually, and occult common bile duct stones occur in up to 12% of patients at time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intraoperative cholangiography is an important aid in biliary surgery in that it allows early identification and repair of common bile duct injury with resulting reductions in morbidity. In addition cholangiography identifies occult common bile duct stones that can be removed by laparoscopic common bile duct exploration resulting in significant cost savings for the patient and the hospital.


Cholangiography Cholangiogram Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration Bile duct injury Common bile duct stones 



We appreciate the work of Marc Arizmendez for video editing contribution to reproduce the figures.


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Copyright information

© Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCedars Sinai Medical Center Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryTexas Tech University Health Sciences Center El PasoEl PasoUSA

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