Physical Assessment in Pediatric Sleep Hygiene and Airway Health
In addition to plaque-mediated dental diseases of childhood, mainly early childhood caries (ECC) and gingivitis, recent evidence suggests that pediatric malocclusion is additionally being recognized as a serious public health dilemma per its frequent comorbid association with sleep and breathing disturbances. Specifically, retrognathic, narrow, excessively vertical, and deficient sagittal skeletal phenotypes in children are often associated with increased risk susceptibility for impaired nasal breathing (Juliano and Ligia, J Clin Sleep Med 5:554, 2009; Kawashima, et al., Ear Nose Throat J 79:499, 2000; Seerone, et al., Angle Orthod 87:138, 2017).
- 10.Angle EH. Classification of malocclusion. Dental Cosmos. 1899;41(3):248–64.Google Scholar
- 13.Boyd KL, Sheldon SH. Sleep disorder breathing: a dental perspective. In: Principles and practice of pediatric sleep medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc; 2012. p. 275–80.Google Scholar
- 14.Commission on Dental Accreditation. Accreditation standards for advanced specialty education programs in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Accessed 20 Feb 2017, from http://www.ada.org/~/media/CODA/Files/ortho.pdf?la=en.
- 16.Personal communication with this author.Google Scholar
- 17.Singleton LG. The human side of orthodontia. Angle Orthod. 1934;4(4):305–11.Google Scholar
- 19.American Association of Orthodontists. Your child’s first orthodontic checkup. AAO promotional brochure. Accessed 20 Feb 2017, from https://mylifemysmile.org/mylifemysmile/brochures/Your_Childs_First_Checkup.pdf.
- 21.Rubin RM. The orthodontist’s responsibility in preventing facial deformity. In: McNamara J, editor. Naso-respiratory function and craniofacial growth, Craniofacial growth series, vol. 9. Ann Arbor, MI, Center for Human Growth and Development; 1979.Google Scholar
- 22.Whiting GF. Mouth-breathing and its Attendant Evils. Dental Cosmos. 1883;25(6):295–306.Google Scholar
- 23.Pullen HA. Mouth-breathing. Dental Cosmos. 1906;48(10):998–1014.Google Scholar