Physical Assessment in Pediatric Sleep Hygiene and Airway Health
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In addition to plaque-mediated dental diseases of childhood, mainly early childhood caries (ECC) and gingivitis, recent evidence suggests that pediatric malocclusion is additionally being recognized as a serious public health dilemma per its frequent comorbid association with sleep and breathing disturbances. Specifically, retrognathic, narrow, excessively vertical, and deficient sagittal skeletal phenotypes in children are often associated with increased risk susceptibility for impaired nasal breathing (Juliano and Ligia, J Clin Sleep Med 5:554, 2009; Kawashima, et al., Ear Nose Throat J 79:499, 2000; Seerone, et al., Angle Orthod 87:138, 2017).
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