Kinematic Analysis of Rock Instability in the Archaeological Site of Delphi Using Innovative Techniques

  • Kyriaki Devlioti
  • Basile ChristarasEmail author
  • Vasilios Marinos
  • Konstantinos Vouvalidis
  • Nikolaos Giannakopoulos
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 962)


The maintenance of the archaeological site of Delphi, as well as visitors and employers safety, is, directly, related to local geotechnical stability conditions. So, a first approach of understanding possible changes in slope geometry and knowledge of underlying engineering properties of the rock mass, was made, to minimize significant risks, which are associated with slope failures. This research, was conducted in the context of a PhD thesis, concerning the geotechnical risk related to the safety of archaeological sites. Laser scanning technology has been increasingly applied in geotechnical surveys, due to its high precision, high efficiency and ease of use, especially at inaccessible slopes that cannot be mapped manually. In this framework, a pilot survey was carried out at the northern rock cliff, overhanging the stadium, using LiDAR (Light detection and Ranging) technology. This research was aimed to image the rocky outcrop, produce virtual 3D computer models and collect discontinuity orientation data, in order to facilitate the geological and discontinuity mapping for its rapid evaluation of rock fall susceptibility and make a precursor mapping of the current situation in the research area, which is a typical example with high impact of rockfalls. Detailed three-dimensional models were created to distinguish the most unstable blocks, to define main rock fall source areas position, and to precisely distinguish outcropping materials and all elements at risk position. According to the results, rockfall is the most common form of landslide, as well as the most common failure mode likely to be triggered by a seismic event. As it is already known, the most important factor controlling rockfall trajectory is slope geometry. For this reason, discontinuity orientation data were collected and also their spacing and persistence on the limestone cliff were depicted. So, for investigating the existing stability conditions, kinematics of rock instability are presented.


Delphi LiDAR Rockfalls Discontinuities Kinematic analysis 



We would like to thank the Archaeological Ephoriate of Fokida and the Archaeological site of Delphi, for their permission, facilitation and willingness in order to fulfill the field work in the stadium of the archaeological site.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyriaki Devlioti
    • 1
  • Basile Christaras
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vasilios Marinos
    • 1
  • Konstantinos Vouvalidis
    • 1
  • Nikolaos Giannakopoulos
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeologyAristotle UniversityThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringAristotle UniversityThessalonikiGreece

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