Advertisement

A Holistic Approach to Prisoners’ Families—From Arrest to Release

  • Rachel CondryEmail author
  • Peter Scharff Smith
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Prisons and Penology book series (PSIPP)

Abstract

Some studies have underlined the importance of looking at how families become involved during the various phases of the criminal justice process in order to understand the trajectory of their experiences before, during, and after imprisonment and the impact upon them at each stage (Condry in Families Shamed: The Consequences of Crime for Relatives of Serious Offenders, Willan, Cullompton, 2007; McDermott and King in: R. Shaw (ed) Prisoners’ Children: What Are the Issues? Routledge, London, 1992; Smith in When the Innocent Are Punished: The Children of Imprisoned Parents, Palgrave, Basingstoke, 2014; Smith and Gampell in The Children of Imprisoned Parents, The Danish Institute for Human Rights, Copenhagen, 2011). This chapter considers each of these stages: the arrest, pre-trial, prison regimes, visits and contact, release, and re-entry, and argues for a holistic approach which considers the experiences of families across the criminal justice process.

References

  1. Aiello, Brittnie, and Jill McCorkel. 2017. “‘It Will Crush You Like a Bug’: Maternal Incarceration, Secondary Prisonization, and Children’s Visitation.” Punishment & Society 20(3): 351–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arditti, J.A., and J. Savla. 2013. “Parental Incarceration and Child Trauma Symptoms in Single Caregiver Homes.” Journal of Child & Family Studies 24(3): 551–561.Google Scholar
  3. Bartlett, Tess S., Catherine A. Flynn, and Christopher J. Trotter. 2018. “‘They Didn’t Even Let Me Say Goodbye’: A Study of Imprisoned Primary Carer Fathers at the Point of Arrest in Victoria, Australia.” Child Care in Practice 24(2): 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boswell, Gwyneth, and Peter Wedge. 2007. Imprisoned Fathers and Their Children. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Brunton-Smith, I., and D.J. McCarthy. 2017. “The Effects of Prisoner Attachment to Family on Re-entry Outcomes: A Longitudinal Assessment.” The British Journal of Criminology 57(2): 463–482.Google Scholar
  6. Christensen, Else. 1999. Forældre i Fængsel. Copenhagen: SFI.Google Scholar
  7. Cobean, Susan C., and Paul W. Power. 1978. The Role of the Family in the Rehabilitation of the Offender. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 22: 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Codd, Helen. 2007. “Prisoners’ Families and Resettlement: A Critical Analysis.” The Howard Journal 46(3): 255–263.Google Scholar
  9. Codd, Helen. 2008. In the Shadow of Prison: Families, Imprisonment and Criminal Justice. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Comfort, Megan. 2008. Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  11. Comfort, Megan. 2016. “‘A Twenty-Hour-a-Day Job’: The Impact of Frequent Low-Level Criminal Justice Involvement on Family Life.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 665(1): 63–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Comfort, Megan. 2018. “‘I’m the Man and He’s the Woman!’: Gender Dynamics Among Couples During and After Prison.” In Prisons, Punishment and the Family: Towards a New Sociology of Punishment? edited by R. Condry and P. Smith. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Condry, Rachel. 2007. Families Shamed: The Consequences of Crime for Relatives of Serious Offenders. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  14. Condry, Rachel, Anna Kotova, and Shona Minson. 2016. “Social Injustice and Collateral Damage: The Families and Children of Prisoners.” In The Handbook on Prisons, edited by Yvonne Jewkes, Jamie Bennett, and Ben Crewe, 2nd ed. Abingdon: Routledge. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ditchfield, John. 1994. “Family Ties and Recidivism.” (Home Office Research Bulletin No. 36). London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  16. Donson, Fiona, and Aisling Parkes. 2018. “Rights and Securing in the Shadow of the Irish Prison.” In Prisons, Punishment and the Family: Towards a New Sociology of Punishment? edited by R. Condry and P. Smith. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Einat, Tomer, and Sharon Rabinovitz. 2013. “A Warm Touch in a Cold Cell: Inmates’ Views on Conjugal Visits in a Maximum-Security Women’s Prison in Israel.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 57(12): 1522–1545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Einat, Tomer, Inbal Harle-Aviram, and Sharon Rabinovitz. 2013. “Barred from Each Other: Why Normative Husbands Remain Married to Incarcerated Wives—An Exploratory Study.” International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 59(6): 654–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Foster, Holly, and John Hagan. 2015. “Punishment Regimes and the Multilevel Effects of Parental Incarceration: Intergenerational, Intersectional, and Interinstitutional Models of Social Inequality and Systemic Exclusion.” Annual Review of Sociology 41: 135–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goffman, Alice. 2014. On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hairston, Creasie Finney. 1998. “Family Ties During Imprisonment: Do They Influence Future Criminal Activity?” Federal Probation 52(1): 48–52.Google Scholar
  22. Haney, Craig. 2003. “Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Solitary and ‘Supermax’ Confinement.” Crime and Delinquency 49(1): 124–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holmgren, Bengt, Thomas Frisell, and Bo Runeson. 2007. “Psykisk hälsa hos häktade med restriktioner.” Kriminalvården, Projektnummer: 2007: 1.Google Scholar
  24. Home Office. 2005. “Resettlement Outcomes on Release from Prison in 2003.” (Home Office Research Findings No. 248). London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  25. Hutton, Marie. 2018. “The Legally Sanctioned Stigma of Prisoners’ Families.” In Prisons, Punishment and the Family: Towards a New Sociology of Punishment? edited by R. Condry and P. Smith. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Jardine, Cara. 2015. Constructing Family in the Context of Imprisonment: A Study of Prisoners and Their Families in Scotland. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  27. Jardine, Cara. 2017. “Constructing and Maintaining Family in The Context of Imprisonment.” The British Journal of Criminology. Google Scholar
  28. Kotova, Anna. 2016. ‘He’s Got a Life Sentence, but I Have a Life Sentence to Cope with as Well’: The Experiences of Long-Term Prisoners’ Partners. Unpublished DPhil Thesis, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  29. Maldonado, Solangel. 2006. “Recidivism and Paternal Engagement.” Family Law Quarterly 40: 191–212.Google Scholar
  30. Markson, Lucy, Frederik Lösel, Karen Souza, and Caroline Lanksey. 2015. “Male Prisoners’ Family Relationships and Resilience in Resettlement.” Criminology and Criminal Justice 15(4): 423–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martinez, Damien J., and Johnna Christian. 2009. “The Familial Relationships of Former Prisoners Examining the Link Between Residence and Informal Support Mechanisms.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 38(2): 201–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mazza, Carl. 2000. “And Then the World Fell Apart: The Children of Incarcerated Fathers.” Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Services 83(5): 521–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McDermott, Kathleen, and Roy D. King. 1992. “Prison Rule 102: ‘Stand by Your Man’.” In Prisoners’ Children: What Are the Issues? edited by R. Shaw. London: Routledge. Google Scholar
  34. Minson, Shona. 2017. Who Cares? Analysing the Place of Children in Maternal Sentencing Decisions in England and Wales. Unpublished DPhil Thesis, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  35. Mitchell, Meghan M., Kallee Spooner, Di Jia, and Yan Zhang. 2016. “The Effect of Prison Visitation on Reentry Success: A Meta-Anaysis.” Journal of Criminal Justice 47: 74–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moran, Dominique, Marie A. Hutton, Louise Dixon, and Tom Disney. 2017. “‘Daddy Is a Difficult Word for Me to Hear’: Carceral Geographies of Parenting and the Prison Visiting Room as a Contested Space of Situated Fathering.” Children’s Geographies 15(1): 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Morris, Pauline. 1965. Prisoners and their Families. New York: Hart publishing company.Google Scholar
  38. Mowen, Thomas J., and Christy A. Visher. 2016. “Changing the Ties That Bind: How Incarceration Impacts Family Relationships.” Criminology & Public Policy 15(2): 503–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Murray, Joseph, and David Farrington. 2006. “Evidence-Based Programs for Children of Prisoners.” Criminology & Public Policy 5(4): 721–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Murray, Joseph, and David Farrington. 2008. “The Effects of Parental Imprisonment on Children.” Crime and Justice 37(1): 133–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Naser, Rebecca L., and Nancy G. La Vigne. 2006. “Family Support in the Prisoner Reentry Process: Expectations and Realities.” Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 43: 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nelson, Marta, Perry Deess, and Charlotte Allen. 1999. The First Month Out: Post-incarceration Experiences in New York City. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  43. Niven, Stephen, and Duncan Stewart. 2005. “Resettlement Outcomes on Release from Prison in 2003.” (Home Office Findings No. 248). London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  44. Reiter, Keramet. 2016. 23/7: Pelican Bay Prison and the Rise of Long-Term Solitary Confinement. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Rocque, Michael, David M. Bierie, Chad Posick, and Doris L MacKenzie. 2013. “Unraveling Change: Social Bonds and Recidivism Among Released Offenders.” Victims and Offenders 8: 209–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rodriguez, Nancy. 2016. “Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice: The Role of Science in Addressing the Effects of Incarceration on Family Life.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 665(1): 231–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shalev, Sharon. 2009. Supermax: Controlling Risk Through Solitary Confinement. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  48. Siegel, J.A. 2011. Disrupted Childhoods: Children of Women in Prison. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Smith, Peter Scharff. 2006. “The Effects of Solitary Confinement on Prison Inmates: A Brief History and Review of the Literature.” Crime and Justice 34(1): 441–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith, Peter Scharff. 2011. “A Critical look at Scandinavian Exceptionalism. Welfare State theories, Penal Populism, and Prison Conditions in Denmark and Scandinavia.” In Nordic Prison Practice and Policy—Exceptional or Not? Exploring Penal Exceptionalism in the Nordic context edited by Thomas Ugelvik and Jane Dullum. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Smith, Peter Scharff. 2014. When the Innocent Are Punished: The Children of Imprisoned Parents. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  52. Smith, Peter Scharff. 2015. “Children of Imprisoned Parents in Scandinavia: Their Problems, Treatment and the Role of Scandinavian Penal Culture.” Law in Context 32: 147–168.Google Scholar
  53. Smith, Peter Scharff. 2017. “Punishment Without Conviction? Scandinavian Pre-trial Practices and the Power of the ‘Benevolent’ State.” In Embraced by the Welfare State? Scandinavian Penal History, Culture and Prison Practice edited by Smith and Ugelvik, 129–155. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  54. Smith, Peter Scharff, and Lucy Gampell, eds. 2011. The Children of Imprisoned Parents. Copenhagen: The Danish Institute for Human Rights.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, Peter Scharff, and Janne Jakobsen. 2017. Varetægtsfængsling. Danmarks hårdeste straf? Copenhagen: DJØF Publishing.Google Scholar
  56. Social Exclusion Unit. 2002. Reducing Re-offending by Ex-prisoners. London: Social Exclusion Unit.Google Scholar
  57. Visher, Christy A., and Jeremy Travis. 2003. “Transitions from Prison to Community: Understanding Individual Pathways.” Annual Review of Sociology 29: 89–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wagner, Peter, and Bernadette Rabuy. 2017. “Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie.” Prison Policy Initiative. https://www.prisonpolicy.org/reports/pie2017.html. Accessed 15 December 2017.
  59. Wakefield, S. 2016. “Changing the Ties that Bind.” Criminology & Public Policy 15: 543–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wakefield, S., H. Lee, and C. Wildeman. 2016. “Tough on Crime, Tough on Families? Criminal Justice and Family Life in America.” The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 665(1): 8–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wildeman, Christopher, and Bruce Western. 2010. “Incarceration in Fragile Families.” The Future of Children 20: 157–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Women in Prison. 2013. State of the Estate—Women in Prison’s Report on the Women’s Custodial Estate 2011–2012. London: Women in Prison.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for CriminologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.The Department of Criminology and Sociology of LawOslo UniversityOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations