RTM Process Modeling

  • João M. P. Q. DelgadoEmail author
  • Antonio Gilson Barbosa de Lima
  • Mariana Julie do Nascimento Santos
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology book series (BRIEFSAPPLSCIENCES)


This chapter, based on the rigorous theory of fluid flow through porous media (continuum theory), different approaches (analytical) for description of air and resin flow in fibrous media will be presented. In the macroscopic mathematical modeling, both fibrous media and fluids (resin and air) are considered to be incompressible and the effect of resin sorption by fibers has been considered. Herein, by using a relevant and advanced mathematical treatment, different effects of the process parameters (injection pressure, fluid viscosity, porous media permeability, and porosity) and mold geometry in the fluid infiltration process has been analyzed.


  1. 1.
    Lee LJ (1997) Liquid composite molding. In: Gutowski TG (ed) Advanced composites manufacturing. Wiley, New York, USA, pp 393–456Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Luz FF (2011) Comparative analysis of the fluid flow in RTM experiments using commercial applications. Master’s Thesis, Mines, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hardt DE (1997) Process control of thermosetting composites: Context and review. In: Gutowski TG (ed) Advanced composites manufacturing. Wiley, New York, USA, pp 457–486Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gutowski TG (1997) A brief introduction to composite materials and manufacturing processes. In: Gutowski TG (ed) Advanced composites manufacturing. Wiley, New York, USA, pp 5–41Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mazumdar SK (2002) Composites manufacturing: materials, product and process engineering. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Callister WD Jr, Rethwisch DG (2008) Fundamentals of materials science and engineering: an integrated approach, 3rd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, USAGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Advani SG, Sozer EM (2011) Process modeling in composites manufacturing. CRC Press, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kardos JL (1997) The processing science of reactive polymer composites. In: Gutowski TG (ed) Advanced composites manufacturing. Wiley, New York, USA, pp 43–80Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bunssel AR, Renard J (2005) Fundamentals of fibre reinforced composite materials. Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Khilar KC, Fogler HS (1998) Migration of fines in porous media. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gonçalves NDF (2007) Finite volume method in unstructured meshes, Master Thesis, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shojaei A, Ghaffarian SR, Karimian MH (2003) Modeling and simulation approaches in the resin transfer molding process: a review. Polymer Compos 24(4):525–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Long AC (2006) Design and manufacture of textile composites, 1st edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rudd CD, Long AC, Kendall KN, Mangin GCE (1997) Liquid moulding technologies: resin transfer moulding, structural reaction injection moulding and related processing techniques. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, EnglandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gutowski TG (1997) Advanced composites manufacturing. Wiley, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee LJ (1997) Advanced composites manufacturing, In: Gutowski TG (ed) Liquid composite molding. Wiley, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Advani SG, Hsião K (2005) Transport phenomena in liquid composites molding processes and their roles in process control and optimization. In: Vafai K (ed) Handbook of porous media. CRC Press, Boca Raton, USAGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Luz FF, Amico SC, Souza JA, Barbosa ES, Lima AGB (2012) Resin Transfer Molding Process: Fundamentals, numerical computation and experiments In: Delgado JMPQ, Lima AGB, Silva MV (eds) Numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer in porous media. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chui W, Glimm J, Tangerman F, Jardine A, Madsen J, Donnellan T, Leek R (1995) Porosity migration in RTM. In: Proceedings of the ninth international conference on numerical methods in thermal problems, Atlanta, USA, pp 1323–1334Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tan H, Roy T, Pillai KM (2007) Variations in unsaturated flow with flow direction in resin transfer molding: an experimental investigation. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manufac 38(8):1872–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oliveira IR, Amico SC, Luz FF, Souza JA, Barcella R, Lima AGB (2013) Resin transfer molding process: a numerical investigation. Def Diff Forum 334:193–198Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matsuzaki R, Seto D, Todoroki A, Mizutani Y (2013) In-Situ void content measurements during resin transfer molding. Adv Compos Mater 22(4):239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Oliveira CP, Souza JA, Isoldi LA, Amico SC (2013) Algebraic rectilinear model for multilayer resin transfer molding injection. J Reinf Plastics Compos 32(1):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Robinson MJ, Kosmatka JB (2014) Analysis of the post-filling phase of the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding process. J Compos Mater 48(13):1547–1559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang B, Jin T, Li J, Bi F (2014) Simulating the resin flow and stress distributions on mold tools during compression resin transfer molding. J Reinf Plastics Compos. 33(14):1316–1331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harris SD, Ingham DB (2005) Parameter identification within a porous medium using genetic algorithims. In: Vafai K (ed) Handbook of porous media, 2. Edn, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, USA, 687–742Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nield D, Bejan A (2006) Convection in porous media, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, USAzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McKibbin R (1998) Mathematical models for heat and mass transport in geothermal systems. In: Ingham DB, Pop I (eds) Transport phenomena in porous media. Oxford, UK, pp 131–154Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang CY (1998) Modeling multiphase flow and transport in porous media. In: Ingham DB, Pop I (eds) Transport phenomena in porous media. Oxford, UK, pp 383–410Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bories S, Prat M (2002) Isothermal nucleation and bubble growth in porous media at low supersaturations. In: Ingham DB, Pop I (eds) Transport phenomena in porous media II, Pergamon. The Netherlands, Amsterdam, pp 276–315zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baytaş AC, Baytaş AF 92005) Entropy generation in porous media. In: Ingham DB, Pop I (eds) Transport phenomena in porous media III. Elsevier Ltda., Oxford, UK, pp 201–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ma L, Ingham DB, Pourkashanian MC (2005) Application of fluid flows through porous media in fuel cells. In: Ingham DB, Pop I (eds) Transport phenomena in porous media III. Elsevier Ltda, Oxford, UK, pp 418–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Santos MJN, Delgado JMPQ, Lima AGB, Oliveira IR (2018) Liquid injection molding process in the manufacturing of fibrous composite materials: theory, advanced modeling and engineering applications. In: Delgado JMPQ, Lima AGB (eds) Transport phenomena in multiphase systems, 1st edn. Springer-Verlag, Cham, Switzerland, pp 251–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lee WI, Loss AC, Springer GS (1982) Heat of reaction, degree of cure and viscosity of Hercules 3501-6 resin. J Compos Mater 16(2):510–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Santos MJN, Lima AGB (2017) Manufacturing fiber-reinforced polymer composite using rtm process: an analytical approach. Def Diff Forum 380:60–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Santos MJN, Delgado JMPQ, Lima AGB, Oliveira IR (2018) Resin flow in porous-fibrous media: an application to polymer composite manufacturing. Diffusion Foundations 20:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Oliveira IR (2014) Infiltration of loaded fluids in porous media via RTM process: theoretical and experimental analyses. Doctoral Thesis, Process in Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, Brazil. (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Oliveira IR, Amico SC, Lima AGB, Lima WMPB (2015) Application of calcium carbonate in resin transfer molding process: An experimental investigation. Materialwiss Werkstofftech 46:24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • João M. P. Q. Delgado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Gilson Barbosa de Lima
    • 2
  • Mariana Julie do Nascimento Santos
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, CONSTRUCT-LFCUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringFederal University of Campina Grande (UFCG)Campina GrandeBrazil

Personalised recommendations