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Biogenesis of the Insulin Secretory Granule in Health and Disease

  • Paul C. Guest
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1134)

Abstract

The secretory granules of pancreatic beta cells are specialized organelles responsible for the packaging, storage and secretion of the vital hormone insulin. The insulin secretory granules also contain more than 100 other proteins including the proteases involved in proinsulin-to insulin conversion, other precursor proteins, minor co-secreted peptides, membrane proteins involved in cell trafficking and ion translocation proteins essential for regulation of the intragranular environment. The synthesis, transport and packaging of these proteins into nascent granules must be carried out in a co-ordinated manner to ensure correct functioning of the granule. The process is regulated by many circulating nutrients such as glucose and can change under different physiological states. This chapter discusses the various processes involved in insulin granule biogenesis with a focus on the granule composition in health and disease.

Keywords

Pancreatic islets Insulin secretory granules Insulin Biogenesis Chromogranin A Diabetes 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul C. Guest
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Tissue Biology, Institute of BiologyUniversity of Campinas (UNICAMP)CampinasBrazil

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