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Investigation in Sono-photocatalysis Process Using Doped Catalyst and Ferrite Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment

  • Sankar ChakmaEmail author
  • G. Kumaravel Dinesh
  • Satadru Chakraborty
  • Vijayanand S. MoholkarEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World book series (ECSW, volume 30)

Abstract

Industrialization and urbanization affect the environment directly, and water is one of the primary natural resources which are affected significantly. With rapid development of science of nanotechnology, the use of nanomaterials in environmental applications, especially water treatment, has attracted the scientific community in the last decades. Nanomaterials have unique properties, for example, surface-to-volume ratio, quantum effect, low band-gap energy, etc., which give extra features in catalytic performance.

This chapter gives a brief introduction of nanomaterials including their classification, shape and structure, type of nanomaterials and their applications in degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants. Moreover, an attempt was made to emphasize the role of catalyst surface in degradation mechanism in the presence of transient metal ions or other elements and an external oxidant such as H2O2. Additionally, we have also discussed process intensification using sono-hybrid advanced oxidation processes of sono-photocatalysis and heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction for wastewater treatment. Some of our investigations revealed that nanophotocatalyst such as ZrFe2O5 possesses dual characteristic and it contains α-Fe2O3 phase which acts as a centre of recombination for holes and electrons resulting to low photoactivity. However, this phase promotes Fenton-like reaction in presence of H2O2 leading to higher degradation. Therefore, the dual activities of photo and Fenton, ZrFe2O5, were found to be better catalyst for hybrid advanced oxidation processes than other conventional photocatalysts. On the other hand, the doping of transition metal ions into nanophotocatalyst helps to generate more OH radicals which attack the organic molecules adsorbed on the catalyst surface and enhanced the degradation efficiency. In sono-hybrid advanced oxidation processes, such photocatalysts exhibit negative synergy as the intense shock waves generated due to the transient collapse of cavitation bubbles influence the desorption of organic molecules from the solid surfaces. As a result, low degradation efficiency was seen due to reduction of interaction probability between radicals and organic molecules.

Keywords

Photocatalysis Sonocatalysis Advanced oxidation process Nanoparticles Ferrite nanoparticle Doped catalyst Degradation Water treatment Ultrasound Cavitation 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Science Education and Research BhopalBhopalIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology GuwahatiGuwahatiIndia

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