Advertisement

Psychosomatic Medicine in Modern Greece

  • George Moussas
  • Athanasios Karkanias
  • George N. Christodoulou
Chapter

Abstract

The teachings of Ancient Greek philosophers and physicians pertaining to the basic psychosomatic principles of psychogenesis and holism are prevalent in the perception of health and illness in Modern Greece. The Psychosomatic approach is considered as an ideology that infiltrates all aspects of not only disease but also health (Christodoulou. Psychosomatic medicine: past and future plenum. Plenum Press, New York/London, 1987).

The establishment of psychiatric departments in general hospitals has been a major step for the implementation and dissemination of this ideology.

A total of 95 public hospitals in Greece have established psychiatric and children’s psychiatric departments, operating on widely varying levels of development, efficiency and effectiveness.

In this chapter, patient care, training, research and publications on psychosomatics and consultation-liaison psychiatry are considered. The achievements and drawbacks in the practice of Psychosomatic Medicine are also discussed.

It is concluded that the future of Psychosomatic Medicine in Greece depends on the recognition and acceptance of its principles and utility by professionals, decision-makers and the public.

Keywords

Psychosomatic medicine Consultation-liaison psychiatry Psychology Greece Teaching Research History C-L Psychiatry Greece 

Supplementary material

References

  1. Abbass, A. A., Kisely, S. R., & Kroenke, K. (2009). Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 78, 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albert, H. D., & Kornfeld, D. S. (1973). The threat to sign out against medical advice. Annals of Internal Medicine, 79, 888–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander, F., Coleman, S. M. (1934, 1935). The influence of psychologic factors upon gastro-intestinal disturbances: A symposium. General principles, objectives, and preliminary results. Psychoanal Quart, 3, 501, The British Journal of Psychiatry (1935), 81, 467–468.Google Scholar
  4. Anagnostopoulos, D. C., Christodoulou, N. G., & Ploumpidis, D. N. (2009). Psychoanalysis and the public health sector: The Greek experience. Psychiatriki, 20, 342–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anagnostopoulos, D. C., Giannakopoulos, G., & Christodoulou, N. G. (2016). A compounding mental health crisis. Reflections from the Greek experience with Syrian refugees. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersen, B. L., Yang, H. C., Farrar, W. B., Golden-Kreutz, D. M., Emery, C. F., Thornton, L. M., Young, D. C., & Carson, W. E., 3rd. (2008). Psychologic intervention improves survival for breast cancer patients: A randomized clinical trial. Cancer, 113, 3450–3458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bauer, A. M., Fielke, K., Brayley, J., Araya, M., Alem, A., Frankel, B. L., & Fricchione, G. L. (2010). Tackling the global mental health challenge: A psychosomatic medicine/consultation-liaison psychiatry perspective. Psychosomatics, 51, 185–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Christodoulou, G. N. (1987). Psychosomatic medicine: Past and future plenum. New York/London: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christodoulou, N. G. (2016). Individual and systemic mental health effects of economic crises and their associated measures. In G. N. Christodoulou, J. E. Mezzich, N. G. Christodoulou, & D. Lecic-Tosevski (Eds.), Disasters: Mental health context and responses (pp. 256–278). Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars.Google Scholar
  10. Christodoulou, G. N., & Alevizos, B. (1987). Is the irritable Bowel Syndrome really “Psychosomatic”? In Psychosomatic medicine: Past and future (pp. 333–336). New York/London: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christodoulou, G. N., & Associates. (2000). “Psychiatriki” (book). Athens: Beta Publishers. (in Greek).Google Scholar
  12. Christodoulou, N. G., & Christodoulou, G. N. (2013). Financial crises: Impact on mental health and suggested responses. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 82, 279–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christodoulou, G. N., Gargoulas, A., Papaloukas, A., Marinopoulou, A., & Sideris, E. (1977). Primary peptic ulcer in childhood: Psychological, psychosocial and psychiatric aspects. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 56, 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christodoulou, G. N., Alevizos, B. H., & Konstantakakis, E. (1983). Peptic ulcer in adults. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 39, 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Christodoulou, G. N., Ploumpidis, D. N., Christodoulou, N. G., & Anagnostopoulos, D. (2010). Mental health profile of Greece. International Psychiatry, 7, 64–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Christodoulou, G. N., Ploumpidis, D. N., Christodoulou, N. G., & Anagnostopoulos, D. (2012). The state of psychiatry in Greece. International Review of Psychiatry, 24, 301–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Engel, G. L. (1977). The need for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196, 129–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fava, et al. (2005). The clinical domains of psychosomatics medicine. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66, 849–858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fava, G. A., & Sonino, N. (2010). Psychosomatic medicine. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 64, 1155–1161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gitlin, D. F. (2005). Education and training in psychosomatic medicine. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12, 298–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holden, P., Vogtsberger, K. N., Mohl, P. C., & Fuller, D. S. (1989). Patients who leave the hospital against medical advice: The role of the psychiatric consultant. Psychosomatics, 30, 396–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holmes, T. (1978). Life situations, emotions, and disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 9, 747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Holmes, T. H., & Masuda, M. (1974). Life change and illness susceptibility. In B. S. Dohrenwend & B. P. Dohrenwend (Eds.), Stressful life events: Their nature and effects (pp. 45–72). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  24. Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social reed instrument rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ierodiakonou, C. S., & Iakovidis, A. (1997). Psychiatrics in general hospitals. Thessaloniki: Mastoridis Publications. (in Greek).Google Scholar
  26. Jackson, J. L., DeZee, K., & Berbano, E. (2004). Can treating depression improve disease outcomes? Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 1054–1056.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Karaiskos, D., Mauragani, C., & Moutsopoulos, H. M. (2011). The role of stress and personality characteristics in the onset and the psychopathological manifestations of the Sjögren Syndrome (pp. 518–526). Festschrift for Prof. George Christodoulou, Beta Publishers, Athens, (in Greek).Google Scholar
  28. Kaupp, J. W., Rapoport-Hubschman, N., & Spiegel, D. (2005). Psychosocial treatments. In J. L. Levenson (Ed.), Textbook of psychosomatic medicine (pp. 923–956). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  29. Kosmadaki, M., & Antoniou, C. (2011). Psoriasis, quality of life and depression (pp. 535–537). Festschrift for Prof. George Christodoulou, Beta Publishers, Athens, (in Greek).Google Scholar
  30. Lipowski, Z. J. (1986). Consultation-liaison psychiatry: The first half century. General Hospital Psychiatry, 8, 305–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lipsitt, D. R. (2003). What do consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry and psychosomatic medicine (PM) have in common? Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, 105, 332–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lyketsos, G. C., Arapakis, G., Psaras, M., Photiou, I., & Blackburn, I. M. (1982). Psychological characteristics of hypertensive and ulcer patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 26, 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lykouras, E., Ioannidis, C., Voulgari, A., Jemos, J., & Tzonou, A. (1989). Depression among general hospital patients in Greece. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 79, 148–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mentzos, S. (2008). Interview in “Oedipus” psychoanalytic magazine, published 1 March 2009, pp. 8–22.Google Scholar
  35. Milloy, M. J., Buxton, J., McNeil, R., Dobrer, S., Hayashi, K., Wood, E., & Kerr, T. (2015). PubMed PMID:26509447 PMCID: PMC4624845.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moussas G. (2006). Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry. In: K. Soldatos & L. Lykouras (Eds.), Textbook of Psychiatry (in Greek), Beta Publishers, Athens, pp 722–744.Google Scholar
  37. Moussas, G., Tselebis, A., Karkanias, A., Stamouli, D., Ilias, I., Bratis, D., & Vassila–Demi, K. (2008). A comparative study of anxiety and depression in patients with bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and tuberculosis in a general hospital of chest diseases. Annals of General Psychiatry, 7, 7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Novack, D. H., Cameron, O., Epel, E., Ader, R., Waldstein, S. R., Levenstein, S., Antoni, M. H., & Wainer, A. R. (2007). Psychosomatic medicine: The scientific foundation of the biopsychosocial model. Academic Psychiatry, 31, 388–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Patel, V., & Prince, M. (2010). Global mental health: A new global health field comes of age. JAMA, 303, 1976–1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Plato. (1975). Charmidis dialogue, 156 E. Athens: Papyros. (in Greek).Google Scholar
  41. Ramalho, R., Montenegro, R., Djordjevic, V., Bras, M., & Christodoulou, N. (2016). Person-centered psychiatric education. In J. E. Mezzich, M. Botbol, G. N. Christodoulou, C. R. Cloninger, & I. M. Salloum (Eds.), Person centered psychiatry (pp. 539–549). Switzerland: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rigatos, G. A., & Kappou-Rigatou, I. (1987). Psychosomatic tradition in cancer from antiquity till the end of the nineteenth century. In G. N. Christodoulou (Ed.), Psychosomatic medicine: Past and future (pp. 337–340). New York/London: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Trikkas, G., Benroumbi, M., Vareli, P., & Christodoulou, G. N. (1987a). Psychological factors in diabetes mellitus. In Psychosomatic medicine: Past and future (pp. 299–306). New York/London: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Trikkas, G., Rabavilas, A. D., & Christodoulou, G. N. (1987b). Clinical and personality contributors to alexithymia in Neurotic Patients. In G. N. Christodoulou (Ed.), Psychosomatic medicine: Past and future (pp. 261–264). New York/London: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Watzlawick, P., et al. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.Google Scholar
  46. World Health Organization. (2009). Improving health systems and services for mental health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Moussas
    • 1
    • 2
  • Athanasios Karkanias
    • 1
    • 2
  • George N. Christodoulou
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatrySotiria General HospitalAthensGreece
  2. 2.Society of Preventive PsychiatryAthensGreece
  3. 3.University of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations