Advertisement

Innovating with the ‘The Collaborative Social’ in Japan

  • Tim Murphey
Chapter
Part of the New Language Learning and Teaching Environments book series (NLLTE)

Abstract

This chapter is a very personal and subjective overview of some potentially harmful aspects of society and education in Japan. Social psychology has warned us for many years about the danger of increasing isolation and individualization (III) along with reactive affiliations (e.g. Nazism) just for the sake of belonging to something. Fromm wrote in his 1941 book Escape from Freedom, “to feel completely alone and isolated leads to mental disintegration just as physical starvation leads to death” (p. 17). More recently, biology (Wilson, 1975/2000) and neuroscience (Lieberman, 2013; Cosolino, 2013; Sapolsky, 2018) have stressed and exposed our social needs. Hari’s recent book Lost Connections (2018) has exposed the billion-dollar antidepressant industry as mostly unnecessary when we learn how to socially reconnect with others and our core values. And most recently the UK has created a minister for loneliness position in their government (BBC, 2018) to fight the ill effects of III. Schools it would seem are places where students can go to become more social, but while we teach students in groups we evaluate and score them individually and the amount of social interactions in many classrooms does not often add to a sense of school belonging (Dörnyei & Murphey, 2003; Murphey et al., 2010). This chapter looks at ways to innovate and activate “the collaborative social” in general and during assessments in particular so that students can become more socially adept at bonding and belonging with others. It is unapologetically a blend of several articles and book chapters beginning 30 years ago with my student-made tests (Murphey, 1989). In the introduction below I also reflectively note autobiographically seven sources of innovative practices that I fortunately encountered that I think will tell us how to seed many future innovations in education in Japan. The introduction is followed by three waves of activity around innovating testing.

References

  1. Allwright, D. (1984). Why don’t learners learn what teachers teach?—The interaction hypothesis. In D. M. Singleton & D. G. Little (Eds.), Language learning in formal and informal contexts. Dublin: IRAAL.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, J. D. (1996). Testing in language programs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Brown, J. D. (Ed.). (1998). New ways of classroom assessment. Alexandria, VA: TESOL.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, H. D., & Abeywickrama, P. (2010). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. New York: Pearson.Google Scholar
  5. Clarke, M. (2003). A place to stand: Essays for educators in troubled times (law meaning, and violence). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press ELT.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cosolino, L. (2013). The social neuroscience of education: Optimizing attachment and learning in the classroom. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  7. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dörnyei, Z., & Murphey, T. (2003). Group dynamics in the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunbar, R. (1998). The social brain hypothesis. Evolutionary Anthropology, 6, 178–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Falout, J. (2013). The social crux: Motivational transformations of EFL students in Japan. In T. Coverdale-Jones (Ed.), Transnational higher education in the Asian context (pp. 132–148). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fromm, E. (original 1941, 1961 ed.). Escape from freedom. New York: Henry Holt & Company.Google Scholar
  12. Hari, J. (2018). Lost Connections: Uncovering the real causes of depression—and the unexpected solutions. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  13. Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Karabenick, S. A., & Knapp, J. R. (1991). Relationship of academic help seeking to the use of learning strategies and other instrumental achievement behavior in college students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  17. Kohn, A. (2000). The case against standardized testing: Raising the scores, ruining the schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  18. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lieberman, M. (2013). Social: Why our brains are wired to connect. New York: Crown.Google Scholar
  20. Minister for loneliness appointed to continue Jo Cox’s work. (2018, January 17). BBC. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-42708507.
  21. Mueller, C. M., & Dweck, C. S. (1998). Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(1), 33–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murphey, T. (1989). Student-made tests. Modern English Teacher, 17(1&2), 28–29.Google Scholar
  23. Murphey, T. (1993). Why don’t teachers learn what learners learn? Taking the guesswork out with action logging. English Teaching Forum, 31(1), 6–10.Google Scholar
  24. Murphey, T. (1994). Tests: Learning through negotiated interaction. TESOL Journal, 4(2), 12–16.Google Scholar
  25. Murphey, T. (1998). Self-evaluated video. In J. D. Brown (Ed.), New ways of classroom assessment (pp. 64–66). Alexandria, VA: TESOL.Google Scholar
  26. Murphey, T. (2003a). Assessing the individual: Theatre of the absurd. Shiken: JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 7(1), 2–5. Available online at www.jalt.org/test/mur_2.htm.
  27. Murphey, T. (2003b). JFL and EFL videoing student conversations. In JALT 2002 Conference Proceedings (pp. 50–53). Tokyo, Japan: JALT.Google Scholar
  28. Murphey, T. (2010). The tale that wags. Nagoya: Perceptia Press.Google Scholar
  29. Murphey, T. (2011). Yureugoku shippo. Nagoya: Perceptia Press.Google Scholar
  30. Murphey, T. (2013a). Turning testing into healthy helping and the creation of social capital. PeerSpectives, 10, 27–31.Google Scholar
  31. Murphey, T. (2013b, October). With or without you and radical social testing. Po'okela (Hawai’I Pacific University Newsletter), 20(69), 6–7.Google Scholar
  32. Murphey, T. (2016). Teaching to learn and well-become: Many mini-renaissances. In P. McIntyre, T. Gregerson, & S. Mercer (Eds.), Positive psychology in SLA (pp. 324–343). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphey, T. (2017a). Asking students to teach: Gardening in the jungle. In T. Gregersen & P. MacIntyre (Eds.), Exploring innovations in language teacher education (pp. 251–268). Cham, Switzerland: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Murphey, T. (2017b). Provoking potentials: Student self evaluated and socially mediated testing. In R. Al-Mahrooqi, C. Coombe, F. Al-Maamari, & V. Thakur (Eds.), Revisiting EFL assessment: critical perspectives (pp. 287–317). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Murphey, T. (2017c). A 4-page condensed version of Tim Murphey’s book chapter “Provoking Potentials: Student Self-Evaluated and Socially-Mediated Testing”. Available at STANFORD University’s eNewsletter by Rick Reis “Tomorrow’s Professor”, https://tomprof.stanford.edu/mail/1581#June 30.
  36. Murphey, T., & Falout, J. (2010). Critical participatory looping: Dialogic member checking with whole classes. TESOL Quarterly, 44(4), 811–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Murphey, T., Falout, J., Fukuda, T., & Fukada, Y. (2014). Socio-dynamic motivating through idealizing classmates. System, 45, 242–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Murphey, T., Kim, M., Kusutani, S., Lawson, J., Sugawara, M., & Yamaura, N. (2008). Publishing ecologies. OnCUE Journal, 2(3), 206–220.Google Scholar
  39. Murphey, T., & Morris, S. (2018). Short emotional peace video recommendations. Positive Peace Pedagogy Papers #1, 7–9. https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1gLaZAM_ot7Eb_rz6HnDfBz0Yb8sKtdaE.
  40. Murphey, T., Prober, J., & Gonzáles, K. (2010). Emotional belonging precedes learning. In A. M. F. Barcelos & H. S. Coelho (Eds.), Emoções, reflexões e (trans)formações de professores e formadores de línguas [Emotions, reflections, and (trans)formations of language teachers and teacher educators] (pp. 43–56). Campinas, Sao Paulo: Pontes Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Murphey, T., & Woo, L. (1998). Videoing student conversations: Educational video’s daimond in the rough. The Language Teacher, 22(8), 21–24.Google Scholar
  42. Murphey, T., Wright, M., & Kondo, Y. (1991). Frozen vs responding models of language curriculum. Journal of the Nanzan Academic Society, 51, 1–16.Google Scholar
  43. Nelson-Le Gall, S. (1981). Help-seeking: An understudied problem-solving skill in children. Developmental Review, 1, 224–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nelson-Le Gall, S. (1985). Help-seeking behavior in learning. American Educational Research Association, 12, 55–90.Google Scholar
  45. Newman, R. S., & Schwager, M. T. (1993). Students’ perceptions of the teacher and classmates in relation to reported help seeking in math class. Elementary School Journal, 94, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Norton, B. (2001). Non-participation, imagined communities and the language classroom. In M. Breen (Ed.), Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research (pp. 159–171). London: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  47. Pennycook, A. (2010). Critical applied linguistics. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Rivers, W. (1975). Speaking in many tongues: Essays in foreign-language teaching. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.Google Scholar
  49. Rodiger, H., & Finn, B. (2009, October). Getting it wrong: Surprising tips on how to learn. Scientific American: Mind Matters. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/getting-it-wrong/ and http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=getting-it-wrong.
  50. Roediger, H. (2014, July 20). How tests make us smarter. The New York Times Sunday Review. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/20/opinion/sunday/how-tests-make-us-smarter.html.
  51. Ryan, A. M., & Pintrich, P. R. (1977). “Should I ask for help?” The role of motivation and attitudes in adolescents’ help seeking in math class. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 329–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sapolsky, R. (2018). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  53. Shaw, G. B. (2008). Annajanska. Accessed June 10, 2008 from http://www.notable-quotes.com/s/shaw_george_bernard.html (original source: Maxims for Revolutionists).
  54. Shohamy, E. (2001). The power of tests: A critical perspective on the uses of language tests. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  55. Smith, R. (2015). Exploratory action research as workplan: Why, what and where from? In K. Dikilitas, R. Smith, & W. Trotman (Eds.), Teacher-researchers in action (pp. 37–45). Faversham, UK: IATEFL.Google Scholar
  56. Swain, M., Kinnear, P., & Steinman, L. (2011). Socio cultural theory in second language education: An introduction through narratives. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  57. Wilson, E. O. (2000). Sociobiology: The new synthesis. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim Murphey
    • 1
  1. 1.Kanda University of International StudiesChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations