Advertisement

Sandalwood (Santalum album) Oil

  • Omprakash H. Nautiyal
Chapter

Abstract

Sandalwood (Santalum album) oil is an important export commodity in many countries. It is important for the industry to have a capacity for rapid and accurate determination of oil content and quality for commercial samples. The effect of extraction methods (i.e., steam-distillation, hydro-distillation, subcritical CO2 extraction and solvent extraction) on the oil yield and concentration of major components in a commercial sample was reported. The highest oil yield was obtained from subcritical CO2 (3.83 g/L) extraction followed by the solvent extraction (2.45–3.7 g/L), hydrodistillations (1.86–2.68 g/L) and steam distillation (1.60 g/L). The highest levels of α- and β-santalol were found in the oils extracted with subcritical CO2 (83%), ethyl alcohol (84%) and steam distillation (84%). Organoleptic properties were remarkable in case of subcritical CO2. FTIR analysis has shown the sharp peaks for santalol and santalene in the oil extracted by subcritical CO2. Three of the four solvent-extracted sandalwood oils were recorded as ‘less pleasant’ indicating the generally inferior note of oil derived from these methods. Given the highest yield, the highest level of santalols, it could be concluded that subcritical CO2 is the best technology for sandalwood oil extraction.

Keywords

FTIR Extraction technologies Carbon dioxide Santalum album Santalum yasi Santalum austrocaledonicum 

References

  1. Alpha, T., Raharivelomanana, P., Bianchini, J. P., Faure, R., Cambon, A., & Joncheray, L. (1996). PF0807_Lawrence_fcx.indd 44 06/2/08 9:38:44 AM 47 Santalenes from Santalum austrocaledonicum. Phytochemistry, 41, 829–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alpha, T., Raharivelomanana, P., Bianchini, J. P., Faure, R., & Cambon, A. (1997a). Sesquiterpenoid from Santalum austrocaledonicum. Phytochemistry, 46, 1237–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alpha, T., Raharivelomanana, T. P., Bianchini, J.P., Faure, R., & Cambon, A. (1997b). Identification de deux derives dihydoxyles du bisabolane a partir de Santals oceaniens. Rivista Ital. EPPOS, (Numero Speciale), 84–91.Google Scholar
  4. Alpha, T., Raharivelomanana, T. P., Bianchini, J. P., Faure, R., & Cambon, A. (1997c). Identification de deux derives dihydoxyles du bisabolane a partir de Santals oceaniens. Rivista Ital. EPPOS, (Numero Speciale), 84–91.Google Scholar
  5. Anon. (2006). Market overview the Australian Sandalwood Industry. Australian Agribusiness Group.Google Scholar
  6. Anonis. (1998). Sandalwood and sandalwood compounds. Perfumer Flavorist, 23, 19.Google Scholar
  7. Arctander, S. (1960a). Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin.Google Scholar
  8. Arctander, S. (1960b). Sandalwood oil in East India. In Perfume and flavor materials of natural origin (pp. 574). Denmark. 12 D. P.Google Scholar
  9. Askinson, G. (1915). Perfumes and cosmetics. London: Hodder & Stoughton.Google Scholar
  10. AVONGRO. (2006). Wheatbelt tree cropping incorporated economic development and sustainable production. Sandalwood economics.Google Scholar
  11. Brand, J. E., Fox, J. E. D., Pronk, G., & Cornwell, C. (2007). Comparison of oil concentration and oil quality from Santalum spicatum and S. album plantations, 8-25 years old, with those from mature S. spicatum natural stands. Australian Forestry, 70(4), 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Braun, N. A., et al. (2003). Isolation and chiral GC analysis of β-bisabolols-trace constituents from the essential oil of Santalum album L. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 15(2), 63–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braun, N., Meier, M., & Hammer Schmidt, F. J. (2005). New Caledonium sandalwood oil-a substitute for East Indian sandalwood oil? Journal of Essential Oil Research, 17, 477–480. 150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. British Pharmaceutical Codex. (1949) (p. 612). The British Pharmaceutical Codex 1949. London: The Pharmaceutical Society.Google Scholar
  15. Broadhurst, L., & Coates, D. (2002). Genetic diversity within and divergence between rare and geographically widespread taxa of the Acacia acuminata Benth. (Mimosaceae) complex. Heredity, 88, 250–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brunke, E. J., Vollhardt, J., & Schmaus, G. (1995). Cyclosantalal and epicyclosantalal–new sesquiterpene aldehydes from East Indian sandalwood oil. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 10, 211–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brunke, E.J., Falbusch, K.G., Schmaus, G., & Volhardt, J. (1997). The chemistry of sandalwood fragrance—a review of the last 10 years. Rivista Ital. EPPOS, (Numero Speciale), 48–83.Google Scholar
  18. Bryne, M., Macdonald, B., Broadhurst, L., & Brand, J. (2003a). Regional genetic differentiation in Western Australian sandalwood (Santalum spicatum) as revealed by nuclear RFLP analysis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 107, 1208–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bryne, M., Macdonald, B., & Brand, J. (2003b). Phylogeography and divergence in the chloroplast genome of Western Australian Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum). Heredity, 91, 389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burdock, G. A., & Carabin, I. G. (2008). Safety assessment of sandalwood oil (Santalum album L.). Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(2), 421–432.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2007.09.092.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chana, J. S. (1994). Sandalwood production. International Journal of Aromatherapy, 6(4), 11–13.Google Scholar
  22. Chemat, F., Sahraoui, N., Abert-Vian, M., Bornard, I., & Boutekdjiret, C. (2008). Improved microwave steam distillation apparatus for isolation of essential oils comparison with conventional steam distillation. Journal of Chromatography A, 1210, 229–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chen, Z. X., & Lin, L. (2001). Influences of various extraction methods on content and chemical components of volatile oil of Santalum album. Guangzhou Zhongyiyao Daxue Xuebao, 18(2), 174–177.Google Scholar
  24. Coakley, T. (2006). Market update by Wescorp International. Avon Sandalwooder, Autumn 2006.Google Scholar
  25. Coombs, A. J. (1995). Dictionary of plant names. Oregon: Timber Press.Google Scholar
  26. Coppen, J. J. W. (1995). Sandalwood oil. In Non-wood forest products 1. Flavours and fragrances of plant origin (pp. 53–60). Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  27. Deite, D. C. (1892). A practical treatise on the manufacture of perfumery. Philadelphia: Henry Carey Baird & Co..Google Scholar
  28. Ferhat, M. A., Chemat, F., Meklati, B. Y., & Smadja, J. (2006). An improved microwave Clevenger apparatus for distillation of essential oils from orange peel. Journal of Chromatography A, 1112, 21–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Food Chemicals Codex. (1981). 3rd edn, (p. 268). Washington DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  30. Forest Products Commission. (2007). Annual report 2006/07.Google Scholar
  31. Gowda, V.S.V. (2013). Essential oil production under public sector, private partnership model, Essential oil http://www.ffdcindia.org/essential_oil_24july13.pdf.
  32. Guenther, E. (1952). Oil of sandalwood East Indian. In The essential oils (Vol. 5, pp. 173–187). New York: Van Nostrand Co..Google Scholar
  33. http://www.fpc.wa.gov.au/. Preliminary oil results from a 14-year-old Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) plantation at Kununurra, WA.
  34. Hamilton, L Conrad, CE (Tech. Coords.) (1990) Proceedings of Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii, 9–11 April, 1990. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-122. 84 pp. Berkeley: USDA, PSRS.Google Scholar
  35. Harman, A. (2015). Harvest to hydrosol. Fruitland: IAG Botanics.Google Scholar
  36. Hettiarachchi, D. S. (2008). Volatile oil content determination in the Australian sandalwood industry: Towards a standardized method. Sandalwood Research Newsletter, 23, 1–4.Google Scholar
  37. Hettiarachchi, D. S., Gamage, M., & Subasinghe, U. (2010). Oil content analysis of sandalwood: A novel approach for core sample analysis. Sandalwood Research Newsletter, 25, 1–4.Google Scholar
  38. International Organization for Standardisation (1976) Oil of Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) ISO 3793.Google Scholar
  39. International Organization for Standardisation. (1979). Oil of sandalwood (Santalum album Linnaeus) International Standard ISO 3518-1979 (E). 1st edn, 2 pp. International Organization for Standardization.Google Scholar
  40. International Organization for Standardisation (2002) Oil of Sandalwood (Santalum album L). 2nd edn, ISO 3518.Google Scholar
  41. Jaramillo, B. E., & Martinez, J. R. (2004). Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia Alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, Grown in Colombia, and evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity. Journal of Chromatography A, 1025, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jones, P. (2002). Estimating returns on plantation grown Sandalwood (Santalum spicatum). Sandalwood Information Sheet Issue 3. Forest Products Commission.Google Scholar
  43. Jones, C. G., Plummer, J. A., & Barbour, E. L. (2007). Non-destructive sampling of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) for oil content and composition. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 19(2), 157–164.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2007.9699250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Krotz, A., & Helmchen, G. (1994). Total syntheses, optical rotations and fragrance properties of sandalwood constituents: (-)-(Z) - and (-)-(E)-β-Santalol and their enantiomers, ent-β-Santalene. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 1994(6), 601–609.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jlac.199419940610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kuriakoje, S., Thankappan, X., & Venkatraman, V. (2010). Detection and quantification of adulteration in sandalwood oil through near infrared spectroscopy. The Analysts Journal, 135(10), 2676–2681.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c0an00261e.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kusuma, H. S., & Mahfud, M. (2016). Kinetic studies on extraction of essential oil from sandalwood (Santalum album) by microwave air-hydro distillation method. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1755, 050001-1–050001-6.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4958484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kusuma, H. S., & Mahfud, M. (2017). Kinetic studies on extraction of essential oil from sandalwood (Santalum album) by microwave air-hydro distillation method. Alexandria Engineering Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.007, in press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lawrence, B. M. (1991). Sandalwood oil in progress in essential oils. Perfumer & Flavorist, 1(1), 5(1976); 1(5), 14(1976); 6(5), 32–34(1981); 16(6), 50–52.Google Scholar
  49. Lawrence, B. M. (2009). A preliminary report on the world production of some selected essential oils and countries. Perfumer and Flavorist, 34(1), 38–44. Sandalwood Essential Oil, http://scienceofacne.com/sandalwood-essential-oil/.Google Scholar
  50. Marongiu, B., Piras, A., Porcedda, S., & Tuveri, E. (2006). Extraction of Santalum album and Boswellia carterii Birdw volatile oil by supercritical carbon dioxide: Influence of some process parameters. Flavour and Fragance Journal, 21(4), 718–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McKinnell, F. H. (Ed.). (1993). Proceedings of symposium on sandalwood in the Pacific region held at XVII Pacific science congress, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2 June, 1991 (ACIAR Proceedings No. 49. 43 pp). Canberra: ACIAR.Google Scholar
  52. McKinnell, F. H. (2008). WA sandalwood industry development plan 2008–2020. Perth: Forest Products Commission.Google Scholar
  53. Mookherjee, B. D., Trenkle, R. W., & Wilson, R. A. (1992). New insights in the three most important natural fragrance products: Wood, amber and musk. In H. Woidich & G. Buchbauer (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th International Congress of Flavours, Fragrances and Essential Oils, Oct 4-8 1992 (pp. 234–262). Vienna: Austrian Assoc. Flav. Frag. Industry.Google Scholar
  54. Moretta, P., Ghisalbert, E. L., Piggott, M. J., & Trengove, R. D. (1998a). Extraction of oil from Santalum spicatum by supercritical fluid extraction. ACIAR Proceedings Series, 84, 83–85.Google Scholar
  55. Moretta, P., Ghisalbert, E. L., Piggott, M. J., & Trengove, R. D. (1998b). ACIAR Proceedings Series, 84, 83.Google Scholar
  56. Nautiyal, O. H. (2010). Oil extraction methods in Santalum album. Sandalwood Research Newsletter, 25, 5–7.Google Scholar
  57. Nautiyal, O. H. (2011). Analytical and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy evaluation of sandalwood oil extracted with various process techniques. Journal of Natural Products, 4(2011), 150–157.Google Scholar
  58. Nautiyal, O. H. (2014). Process optimization of sandalwood (Santalum album) oil extraction by subcritical carbon dioxide and conventional technique. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 21, 290–297.Google Scholar
  59. Nayar, R. (1988). Cultivation, improvement, exploitation and protection of Santalum album Linn. Advances in Forestry Research in India, 2, 117–151.Google Scholar
  60. Nicolas, B., Céline, D., & Daniel, J. (2011). Phytochemistry of the heartwood from fragrant Santalum species: A review. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 26(1), 7–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nikiforov, A. L. J., Buchbauer, G., & Raverdino, V. (1988). GC-FTIR and GC-MS in odour analysis of essential oils. Mikrochimica Acta (Vienna), 11, 193–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ochi, T., Shibata, H., Higuti, T., Kodama, K. H., Kusumi, T., & Takaishi, Y. (2005). Anti-Helicobacter pylori compounds from Santalum album. Journal of Natural Products, 68(6), 819–824.  https://doi.org/10.1021/np040188q.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Paulpandi, M., Kannan, S., Thangam, R., Kaver, K., Gunasekaran, P., & Rejeeth, C. (2012). In vitro anti-viral effect of β-santalol against influenza viral replication. Phytomedicine, 19(3–4), 231–235.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2011.11.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Rozzi, N. L., & Singh, R. K. (2002). Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 1, 33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schnitzler, P., Koch, C., & Reichling, J. (2007). Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 strains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 51(5), 1859–1862.  https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00426-06.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Sen-Sarma, P. K. (1982). Sandalwood – its cultivation and utilization. In C. K. Atal & B. M. Kapur (Eds.),. 815 pp Cultivation and utilization of aromatic plants (pp. 395–405). Jammu: Regional Research Laboratory, CSIR.Google Scholar
  67. Shankarnarayana, K. H., & Parthsarathi, K. (1984). Compositional differences in sandal oils from young and mature trees and in the sandal oils undergoing colour change on standing. Indian Perfumer, 28(3/4), 138–141.Google Scholar
  68. Shukla, B. V., Mohod, R., Shukla, S. V., Lehri, A., & Singh, D. P. (1999). Quality assessment of sandalwood oil using gas chromatograph. FAFAI Journal, 1(3), 41–43.Google Scholar
  69. Skerget, M., & Knez, Z. (1997). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45, 2066.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Statham, P. (1990). The sandalwood industry in Australia: a history. In Proceedings of Symposium on Sandalwood in the Pacific, Honolulu, Hawaii, 9–11 April, 1990. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, General Technical Report PSW-122 (pp. 26–38). Berkeley: USDA, PSRS.Google Scholar
  71. Suriamihardja, S. (1978). [Problems on sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) silviculture and improving its production]. In Proceedings of the Third Seminar on Volatile Oils, Bogor, Indonesia, July, 1978 (pp. 115–125) Bogor: Balai Penelitian Kimia.Google Scholar
  72. U.S. Dispensatory (1955) sanadalwood oil is a volatile oil obtained by steam distillation. Lippincott, Philadephia 25th edn, p. 1836.Google Scholar
  73. Venkatesha Gowda, V. S., Patil, K. B., & Perumal, I. R. (2006). Forest based essential oils viz sandalwood oil production and future scenario. Indian Perfum, 50, 45–50; PAFAI, 8(1), 63–70.Google Scholar
  74. Verghese, J., Sunny, T. P., & Balkrishanan, K. V. (1990). (+)-α-santalol and (−)-β-santalol (Z) concentration, a new quality determinant of East Indian sandalwood oil. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 5, 223–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Warnke, P. H., Becker, S. T., Podschun, R., Sivananthan, S., Springer, I. N., Russo, P. A. J., Wiltfang, J., Fickenscher, H., & Sherry, E. (2009). The battle against multi-resistant strains: Renaissance of antimicrobial essential oils as a promising force to fight hospital-acquired infections. Journal of Carnio Maxillo Facial Surgery, 37(7), 392–397.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2009.03.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wei, M., Lin, L., Qiu, J. Y., Cai, Y. W., Lu, A., Yuan, L., Liao, H. F., & Xiao, S. G. (2000). Wind damage effects on quality of hardwood of Lignum santal; albi. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, 25, 710–713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Wood, A. (2008). Pathogen of the month – January 2008. South Africa: Australasian Plant Pathology Society (APPS).Google Scholar
  78. Yadav, V. G. (1993). Sandalwood: Its origin, synthetic substitutes and structure-odour relationship. PAFAI Journal, 15(4), 21–54.Google Scholar
  79. Zhu, L. F., Li, Y. H., Li, B. L., Lu, B. Y., & Xia, N. H. (1993). Aromatic plants and essential constituents (p. 60). Hong Kong: South China Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hai Feng Publish.. distributed by Peace Book Co. Ltd..Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Omprakash H. Nautiyal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryLovely Professional UniversityGT Road, ChaheruIndia

Personalised recommendations