Advertisement

Introduction: Creating a Reign of Terror

  • Vasja Badalič
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Victims and Victimology book series (PSVV)

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the main themes of the book. First, the book examines specific methods of combat (e.g., drone strikes, kill-or-capture operations, assassinations) in order to show which factors led to civilians getting killed or injured in such operations. Second, the book explores detention practices used by the belligerent parties (e.g., arbitrary detention, enforced disappearances) in order to provide an analysis of the factors that led to civilians being unlawfully detained. And third, the book examines some other unlawful practices used by the belligerent parties (e.g., torture in detention centers, forced repatriation of refugees) in order to show how they affected the civilian population in both Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Keywords

Afghanistan Pakistan “War on terror” Methods of combat Detention practices Civilian victims 

References

  1. Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith. 2010. “Five Days Inside a Taliban Jail.” The Guardian, November 25. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/nov/25/taliban-afghanistan-prison-special-report. Accessed on 30 September 2018.
  2. Actions (in Aid of Civil Power) Regulations 2011 (AACPR). 2011. http://www.isj.org.pk/the-actions-in-aid-of-civil-power-regulation-2011/. Accessed on 7 June 2018.
  3. AHRC (Asian Human Rights Commission). 2014. “Pakistan: Balochistan—160 Persons Extra-Judicially Killed, 510 Disappeared and 50 Decomposed Bodies Were Found During 2013.” AHRC, January 7. http://www.humanrights.asia/news/ahrc-news/AHRC-STM-007-2014. Accessed on 18 July 2018.
  4. AI (Amnesty International). 2006. Pakistan: Human Rights Ignored in the “War on Terror.” London: AI Publications. https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/ASA33/036/2006/en/. Accessed on 30 May 2018.
  5. ———. 2015. Amnesty International Report 2014/15: The State of the World’s Human Rights. London: AI Publications. https://www.amnestyusa.org/pdfs/AIR15_English.PDF. Accessed on 18 July 2018.
  6. Badalič, Vasja. 2013. Teror “trajne svobode”: vojna v Afganistanu in Pakistanu. Ljubljana: Krtina.Google Scholar
  7. Barker, Memphis. 2018. “U.S. Military Confirms $300m Cut in Aid to Pakistan.” The Guardian, September 2. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/sep/02/us-military-confirms-300m-cut-in-aid-to-pakistan. Accessed on 28 October 2018.
  8. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 2005. Standing Rules of Engagement/Standing Rules for the Use of Force for US Forces. http://www.jag.navy.mil/distrib/instructions/CJCSI%203121.01B13Jun05.pdf. Accessed on 28 August 2017.
  9. Clark, Kate. 2011. The Layha: Calling the Taleban to Account. Appendix 1. The Taleban Codes of Conduct in English. Kabul: Afghanistan Analyst Network. http://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2012/10/Appendix_1_Code_in_English.pdf. Accessed on 1 October 2017.
  10. Crawford, Neta C. 2018. “Human Cost of the Post-9/11 Wars: Lethality and the Need for Transparency.” Costs of War. https://watson.brown.edu/costsofwar/files/cow/imce/papers/2018/Human%20Costs%2C%20Nov%208%202018%20CoW.pdf. Accessed on 9 November 2018.
  11. CRS (Congressional Research Service). 2019. “Direct Overt U.S. Aid Appropriations for and Military Reimbursements to Pakistan, FY2002–FY2020.” https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/pakaid.pdf. Accessed on 24 March 2019.
  12. Giustozzi, Antonio, Franco Claudio, and Adam Baczko. 2012. Shadow Justice: How the Taliban Run Their Judiciary? Kabul: Integrity Watch Afghanistan. https://www.baag.org.uk/sites/www.baag.org.uk/files/resources/attachments/Integrity%20Watch%20Shadow%20Justice%20Dec.%202012.pdf. Accessed on 3 September 2018.
  13. Henckaerts, Jean-Marie, and Louise Doswald-Beck. 2005. Customary International Humanitarian Law. Volume 1: Rules. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. IHRC (International Human Rights Clinic Harvard Law School). 2016. Tackling Tough Calls: Lessons from Recent Conflicts on Hostile Intent and Civilian Protection. Boston: Harvard Law School. https://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Tackling-Tough-Choices-Hostile-Intent-HLSIHRC-2016.pdf. Accessed on 21 September 2017.
  15. Lauterpacht, Elihu, and Daniel Bethlehem. 2001. “The Scope and Content of the Principle of Non-refoulement: Opinion.” Geneva: UNHCR. http://www.unhcr.org/protect/PROTECTION/3b33574d1.pdf. Accessed on 31 March 2017.
  16. Melzer, Nils. 2009. Targeted Killing and International Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Pejic, Jelena. 2005. “Procedural Principles and Safeguards for Internment/Administrative Detention in Armed Conflict and Other Situations of Violence.” International Review of Human Rights Law 87 (858): 375–391.Google Scholar
  18. “Pence Tells Abbasi That Pakistan Must Do More to Defeat Militants.” 2018. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, March 18. https://www.rferl.org/a/pence-united-states-pakistan-abbasi-taliban-extremists/29106452.html. Accessed on 28 October 2018.
  19. Plaw, Avery, Matthew S. Fricker, and Carlos R. Colon. 2016. The Drone Debate: A Primer on the U.S. Use of Unmanned Aircraft Outside Conventional Battlefields. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  20. SIGAR (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction). 2018. Quarterly Report to the United States Congress. https://www.sigar.mil/pdf/quarterlyreports/2018-07-30qr.pdf. Accessed on 28 October 2018.
  21. “Transcript of Obama Speech on Afghanistan.” 2009. CNN, December 2. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/12/01/obama.afghanistan.speech.transcript/index.html. Accessed on 29 October 2018.
  22. U.N. Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) and U.N. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR). 2011. Treatment of Conflict-Related Detainees in Afghan Custody. Kabul: UNAMA and OHCHR. http://unama.unmissions.org/Portals/UNAMA/Documents/October10_%202011_UNAMA_Detention_Full-Report_ENG.pdf. Accessed on 6 August 2018.
  23. ———. 2015. Update on the Treatment of Conflict-Related Detainees in Afghan Custody: Accountability and Implementation of Presidential Decree 129. Kabul: UNAMA and OHCHR. https://unama.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/unama_detention_report_2015_revised.pdf. Accessed on 6 August 2018.
  24. ———. 2017. Treatment of Conflict-Related Detainees: Implementation of Afghanistan’s National Plan on the Elimination of Torture. Kabul: UNAMA and OHCHR. https://unama.unmissions.org/sites/default/files/treatment_of_conflict-related_detainees_24_april_2017.pdf. Accessed on 6 August 2018.
  25. U.N. General Assembly. 2007. International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance (ICPPED). https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/CTC/Ch_IV_16.pdf. Accessed on 3 July 2018.
  26. U.N. Human Rights Committee. 1982. CCPR General Comment No. 6: Article 6 (Right to Life). http://www.refworld.org/docid/45388400a.html. Accessed on 2 August 2018.
  27. ———. 1987. Carlton Reid v. Jamaica, Communication No. 250/1987, U.N. Doc. CCPR/C/39/D/250/1987. http://hrlibrary.umn.edu/undocs/session39/250-1987.html. Accessed on 5 September 2018.
  28. U.N. Human Rights Council. 2017. Capital Punishment and the Implementation of the Safeguards Guaranteeing Protection of the Rights of Those Facing the Death Penalty: Yearly Supplement of the Secretary-General to His Quinquennial Report on Capital Punishment, A/HRC/36/26. https://www.ohchr.org/en/hrbodies/hrc/regularsessions/session36/pages/listreports.aspx. Accessed on 25 July 2017.
  29. Wright, George. 2003. “Bush Pledges $3bn Aid to Pakistan.” The Guardian, November 9. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/jun/25/usa.pakistan. Accessed on 9 November 2018.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasja Badalič
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Criminology at the Faculty of LawLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations