Advertisement

Improving a Design Space: Pregnancy as a Collaborative Information and Social Support Ecology

  • Tamara PeytonEmail author
  • Pamela Wisniewski
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 69)

Abstract

Pregnancy is a major life experience that changes relationships, identities, and home environments. It is a personal, collaborative, and domestic process of health changes, behavioral adaptations, and social adjustments that goes beyond the medical care of a pregnant woman. Using the lenses of information and support ecologies, we examine whether the complexities of pregnancy are reflected in the design of mobile technologies that support this life altering experience. To do this, we analyzed 191 iOS pregnancy applications (“apps”) to understand the types of functionality they supported. We found that the majority provided static medical and birth event information but had shallow functionality for leveraging social support. Almost all apps excluded expectant fathers, used gendered interfaces and information choices, and focused primarily on fetal development or the pregnant woman’s physical health. We call for less gendered and more meaningfully collaborative mobile health technologies to support pregnancy.

Keywords

Pregnancy Mobile health Information needs Collaboration Parenthood Motherhood iOS apps Scoping study 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research has been supported financially by: the National Center for Research Resources and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Grant UL1 TR000127; the Tronzo Endowment for Medical Informatics at The Pennsylvania State University; a grant for mobile app research from AT&T. The first author acknowledges with gratitude the invaluable guidance of Dr. Madhu Reddy and Dr. Erika Poole on early versions of this paper, and to Stephen Carmen for his collaboration on early dataset creation.

References

  1. 1.
    Sedgh, G., Singh, S., Hussain, R.: Intended and unintended pregnancies worldwide in 2012 and recent trends. Stud. Fam. Plann. 45(3), 301–314 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4465.2014.00393.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ventura, S.J., Curtin, S.C., Abma, J.C., Henshaw, S.K.: Estimated pregnancy rates and rates of pregnancy outcomes for the United States, 1990–2008. Nat. Vital Stat. Rep.: Centers Dis. Control Prevent. Natl. Center Health Stat. Natl. Vital Stat. Syst. 60(7), 1–21 (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guadagno, M., Mackert, M., Rochlen, A.: Improving prenatal health: setting the agenda for increased male involvement. Am. J. Men’s Health (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988313490785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mackert, M., Guadagno, M., Donovan, E., Whitten, P.: Including men in prenatal health: the potential of e-health to improve birth outcomes. Telemed. e-Health (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2014.0048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Root, R., Browner, C.: Practices of the pregnant self: compliance with and resistance to prenatal norms. Cult. Med. Psychiatry 25(2), 195–223 (2001).  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010665726205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hamburg, D.A., Adams, J.E.: A perspective on coping behavior: seeking and utilizing information in major transitions. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 17(3), 277–284 (1967).  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1967.01730270021005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heaney, C.A., Israel, B.A.: Social support and social networks. In: Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., Viswanath, K. (eds.) Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, pp. 185–209. Wiley, San Francisco (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shah, C.: Collaborative Information Seeking: The Art and Science of Making the Whole Greater than the Sum of All. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nardi, B.A., O’Day, V.: Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. MIT Press, Cambridge (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kay, M., Santos, J., Takane, M.: mHealth: New Horizons for Health Through Mobile Technologies. World Health Organization, Geneva (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martínez-Pérez, B., de la Torre-Díez, I., López-Coronado, M.: Mobile health applications for the most prevalent conditions by the World Health Organization: review and analysis. J. Med. Internet Res. 15(6), e120 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Carman, K.L., et al.: Patient and family engagement: a framework for understanding the elements and developing interventions and policies. Health Aff. 32(2), 223–231 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2012.1133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Briggs, J., Adams, C., Fallahkhair, S., Iluyemi, A., Prytherch, D.: M-health review: joining up healthcare in a wireless world. University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK (2012)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Arksey, H., O’Malley, L.: Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int. J. Soc. Res. Methodol. 8(1), 19–32 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Daudt, H.M.L., van Mossel, C., Scott, S.J.: Enhancing the scoping study methodology: a large, inter-professional team’s experience with Arksey and O’Malley’s framework. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 13(1), 48 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-13-48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Levac, D., Colquhoun, H., O’Brien, K.K.: Scoping studies: advancing the methodology. Implement. Sci. 5(1), 69 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deutsch, F.M., Ruble, D.N., Fleming, A., Brooks-Gunn, J., Stangor, C.: Information-seeking and maternal self-definition during the transition to motherhood. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 55(3), 420–431 (1988).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.55.3.420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lagan, B.M., Sinclair, M., George Kernohan, W.: Internet use in pregnancy informs women’s decision making: a web-based survey. Birth 37(2), 106–115 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536X.2010.00390.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Larsson, M.: A descriptive study of the use of the Internet by women seeking pregnancy-related information. Midwifery 25(1), 14–20 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2007.01.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McKenzie, P.J.: A model of information practices in accounts of everyday-life information seeking. J. Doc. 59(1), 19–40 (2003)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ballegaard, S.A., Hansen, T.R., Kyng, M.: Healthcare in everyday life: designing healthcare services for daily life. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2008), pp. 1807–1816 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1357054.1357336
  22. 22.
    Johansson, M., Rubertsson, C., Rådestad, I., Hildingsson, I.: The Internet: one important source for pregnancy and childbirth information among prospective fathers. J. Men’s Health 7(3), 249–258 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jomh.2010.04.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bronfenbrenner, U.: Ecology of the family as a context for human development: research perspectives. Dev. Psychol. 22(6), 723–742 (1986). http://dx.doi.org.ezaccess.libraries.psu.edu/10.1037/0012-1649.22.6.723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bronfenbrenner, U.: Ecological models of human development. In: Gauvain, M., Cole, M. (eds.) Readings on the Development of Children, pp. 37–43. Macmillan, New York (1993)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bronfenbrenner, U.: The bioecological model from a life course perspective: reflections of a participant observer. In: Moen, P., Elder Jr., G.H., Lüscher, K. (eds.) Examining Lives in Context: Perspectives on the Ecology of Human Development, pp. 591–618. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC (1995)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bronfenbrenner, U.: Environments in developmental perspective: theoretical and operational models. In: Friedman, S.L., Wachs, T.D. (eds.) Measuring Environment Across the Life Span: Emerging Methods and Concepts, pp. 3–28. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Flaks, D.K., Ficher, I., Masterpasqua, F., Joseph, G.: Lesbians choosing motherhood: a comparative study of lesbian and heterosexual parents and their children. Dev. Psychol. 31(1), 105–114 (1995).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.31.1.105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Graham, C.W., Fischer, J.L., Crawford, D., Fitzpatrick, J., Bina, K.: Parental status, social support, and marital adjustment. J. Fam. Issues 21(7), 888–905 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1177/019251300021007004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hoge, H.: Women’s Stories of Divorce at Childbirth: When the Baby Rocks the Cradle. Routledge, Abingdon (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peyton, T., Poole, E., Reddy, M., Kraschnewski, J., Chuang, C.: Information, sharing and support in pregnancy: addressing needs for mHealth design. In: Proceedings of the Companion Publication of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (CSCW Companion 2014), pp. 213–216 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2556420.2556489
  31. 31.
    Bronte-Tinkew, J., Scott, M.E., Horowitz, A., Lilja, E.: Pregnancy intentions during the transition to parenthood and links to coparenting for first-time fathers of infants. Parenting 9(1–2), 1–35 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1080/15295190802656729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lu, M.C., et al.: Where is the F in MCH? Father involvement in African American families. Ethn. Dis. 20, S2–49 (2010)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jermane Bond, M.: The missing link in MCH: paternal involvement in pregnancy outcomes. Am. J. Men’s Health 4(4), 285–286 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988310384842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Collins, N.L., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Lobel, M., Scrimshaw, S.C.: Social support in pregnancy: psychosocial correlates of birth outcomes and postpartum depression. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 65(6), 1243 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Norbeck, J.S., Anderson, N.J.: Life stress, social support, and anxiety in mid- and late-pregnancy among low income women. Res. Nurs. Health 12(5), 281–287 (1989).  https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770120503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rini, C., Schetter, C.D., Hobel, C.J., Glynn, L.M., Sandman, C.A.: Effective social support: antecedents and consequences of partner support during pregnancy. Pers. Relat. 13(2), 207–229 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2006.00114.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kraschnewski, J., Poole, E., Peyton, T., Blubaugh, I., Feher, A., Reddy, M.: Calling “Dr. Google”: does technology fill the gap created by the prenatal care visit structure? J. Intern. Med. 29, 44 (2014)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lupton, D.: The digitally engaged patient: self-monitoring and self-care in the digital health era. Soc. Theory Health 11(3), 256–270 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lupton, D., Pedersen, S.: An Australian survey of women’s use of pregnancy and parenting apps. Women Birth 29(4), 368–375 (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2016.01.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Carissoli, C., Villani, D., Riva, G.: An emerging model of pregnancy care: the introduction of new technologies. In: Integrating Technology in Positive Psychology Practice, p. 162 (2016)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gibson, L., Hanson, V.L.: Digital motherhood: how does technology help new mothers? In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2013), pp. 313–322 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2470654.2470700
  42. 42.
    Morris, M.R.: Social networking site use by mothers of young children. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (CSCW 2014), pp. 1272–1282 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2531602.2531603
  43. 43.
    Schoenebeck, S.Y.: The secret life of online moms: anonymity and disinhibition (2013). YouBeMom.com
  44. 44.
    Rising, S.S.: Centering pregnancy: an interdisciplinary model of empowerment. J. Nurs.-Midwifery 43(1), 46–54 (1998).  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-2182(97)00117-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rúdólfsdóttir, A.G.: “I am not a patient and I am not a child”: the institutionalization and experience of pregnancy. Fem. Psychol. 10(3), 337–350 (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353500010003004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Peyton, T., Poole, E., Reddy, M., Kraschnewski, J., Chuang, C.: Every pregnancy is different: designing mHealth for the pregnancy ecology. In: Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, pp. 577–586 (2014)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Barkhuus, L., Bales, E., Cowan, L.: Internet ecologies of new mothers: trust, variety and strategies for managing diverse information sources (2017)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Almeida, T., Comber, R., Balaam, M.: HCI and intimate care as an agenda for change in women’s health, pp. 2599–2611 (2016)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Barry, M., Doherty, K., Marcano Bellisario, J., Car, J., Morrison, C., Doherty, G.: mHealth for maternal mental health: everyday wisdom in ethical design. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems: TBD (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3025453.3025918
  50. 50.
    Klasnja, P., Civan Hartzler, A., Unruh, K.T., Pratt, W.: Blowing in the wind: unanchored patient information work during cancer care. In: CHI 2010 Proceedings of SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 193–202 (2010).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1753326.1753355
  51. 51.
    Reddy, M., Dourish, P.: A Finger on the pulse: temporal rhythms and information seeking in medical work a finger on the pulse: temporal rhythms and information seeking in medical work. In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW 2002), pp. 344–353 (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1145/587078.587126
  52. 52.
    Ammari, T., Schoenebeck, S.: Understanding and supporting fathers and fatherhood on social media sites. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2015), pp. 1905–1914 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702205
  53. 53.
    Newman, D.J., Block, S.: Probabilistic topic decomposition of an eighteenth-century American newspaper. J. Am. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 57(6), 753–767 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.20342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Steen, M., Aarts, O., Broekman, C.C.M.T., Prins, S.: Social networking for well-being. In: Paper for workshop ‘Fostering Social Interactions in the Ageing Society’ During ECSCW 2011 Conference (2011)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wisniewski, P., Ghosh, A.K., Rosson, M.B., Xu, H., Carroll, J.M.: Parental control vs. teen self-regulation: is there a middle ground for mobile online safety? (2017)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    mPregnancy—for men with pregnant women. Double Dip Media, Inc. (2009)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mr. Dad on Pregnancy. Aceable Inc. (2013)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Borning, A., Muller, M.: Next steps for value sensitive design. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2012), pp. 1125–1134 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2207676.2208560
  59. 59.
    iPregnant Pregnancy Tracker Deluxe. Winkpad Creations Inc. (2013)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pink Pad. Alt12 Apps. LLC (2017)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gao, Y., Li, X., Lin, Y.-H., Liu, X., Pang, L.: Nuwa: enhancing the pregnancy experience for expectant parents. In: CHI 2014 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA 2014), pp. 257–262 (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2559206.2580928
  62. 62.
    Kumar, P., Schoenebeck, S.: The modern day baby book: enacting good mothering and stewarding privacy on facebook. In: Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (CSCW 2015), pp. 1302–1312 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2675133.2675149
  63. 63.
    Douglas Evans, W., et al.: Initial outcomes from a 4-week follow-up study of the Text4baby program in the military women’s population: randomized controlled trial. J. Med. Internet Res. 16(5), e131 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bronfenbrenner, U.: The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1979)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Harrisburg University of Science and TechnologyHarrisburgUSA
  2. 2.University of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

Personalised recommendations