Advertisement

Opening the “Black Box” of the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface Through an Under-investigated Community

  • Ramzi BelkacemiEmail author
  • William Menvielle
  • Hédia El Ourabi
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)

Abstract

This paper examines ethnic entrepreneurship through a study of Maghrebian entrepreneurs in Canada. The entrepreneurship and marketing literature that focuses on the role of ethnic entrepreneurs in creating sustainable communities is discussed. The methodology is a qualitative study that seeks to examine how does marketing translate into ethnic enterprises in Montreal. The findings have important implications for ethnic entrepreneurship and sustainable economic development.

References

  1. Altinay, L. (2010). Market orientation of small ethnic minority-owned hospitality firms. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(1), 148–156.Google Scholar
  2. Altinay, L., & Altinay, E. (2008). Marketing strategies of ethnic minority businesses in the UK. Service Industries Journal, 28(8), 1183–1197.Google Scholar
  3. Altinay, L., Saunders, M. N., & Wang, C. L. (2014). The influence of culture on trust judgments in customer relationship development by ethnic minority small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management, 52(1), 59–78.Google Scholar
  4. Arrighetti, A., Bolzani, D., & Lasagni, A. (2014). Beyond the enclave? Break-outs into mainstream markets and multicultural hybridism in ethnic firms. Entrepreneurship et Regional Development, 26(9–10), 753–777.Google Scholar
  5. Băltescu, C. A., & Boşcor, D. (2013). Customers’ opinions regarding eating-out in national type restaurants. Ovidius University Annals, XIII(2), 370–374.Google Scholar
  6. Băltescu, C. A., & Boşcor, D. (2016). Are ethnic restaurants a solution to dine out for the young local population? Bulletin of the Transylvania University of Brasov. Economic Sciences. Series V, 9(2), 113.Google Scholar
  7. Barrett, G., Jones, T., McEvoy, D., & McGoldrick, C. (2002). The economic embeddedness of immigrant enterprise in Britain. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 8(1/2), 11–31.Google Scholar
  8. Basu, A. (2004). Entrepreneurial aspirations among family business owners: An analysis of ethnic business owners in the UK. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 10(1/2), 12–33.Google Scholar
  9. Basu, A. (2011). From “break out” to “breakthrough”: Successful market strategies of immigrant. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 20(7), 442–451.Google Scholar
  10. Boyd, R. L. (2001). Ethnicity, niches, and retail enterprise in northern cities, 1900. Sociological Perspectives, 44(1), 89–110.Google Scholar
  11. Brenner, G. A., Menzies, T. V., Dionne, L., & Filion, L. J. (2010). How location and ethnicity affect ethnic entrepreneurs in three Canadian cities. Thunderbird International Business Review, 52(2), 153–171.Google Scholar
  12. Burton, D. (2002). Incorporating ethnicity into marketing intelligence and planning. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 20(7), 442–451.Google Scholar
  13. Carson, D., & Gilmore, A. (2000). Marketing at the interface: Not ‘what’ but ‘how’. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 8(2), 1–7.Google Scholar
  14. Carter, E. V. (2009). Deepening multicultural marketing instruction: The universal and temporal dimensions of ethnic diversity. Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education, 15, 1546–1566.Google Scholar
  15. Casini, L., Contini, C., Romano, C., & Scozzafava, G. (2016). New trends in food choice: What impact on sustainability of rural areas? Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 8, 141–147.Google Scholar
  16. Chakiso, C. B. (2015). The effect of relationship marketing on customers’ loyalty (Evidence from Zemen Bank). Emerging Markets Journal, 5(2), 58–70.Google Scholar
  17. Chaudhry, S., & Crick, D. (2004). Understanding practices at the “ethnic” marketing/entrepreneurship interface: A case study of kirit Pathak. Qualitative Market Research, 7(3), 183–193.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, K., & Redding, G. (2017). Collaboration and opportunism as a duality within social capital: A regional ethnic Chinese case study. Asia Pacific Business Review, 23(2), 243–263.Google Scholar
  19. Chitu, I. B., & Albu, R. G. (2013). Aspects regarding the use of Facebook within the hospitality industry—A case study in Romania. Bulletin of the Transylvania University of Brasov. Economic Sciences. Series V, 6(1), 97–102.Google Scholar
  20. Cooper, D. R., & Schindler, P. S. (2003). Business research methods (Vol. 15, 8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.Google Scholar
  21. Crick, D., & Chaudhry, S. (2010). An investigation into UK-based Asian entrepreneurs’ perceived competitiveness in overseas markets. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 22(1), 5–23.Google Scholar
  22. Cui, G. (2001). Marketing to ethnic minority consumers: A historical journey (1932–1997). Journal of Macromarketing, 21(1), 23–31.Google Scholar
  23. Cui, G., & Choudhury, P. (2002). Marketplace diversity and cost-effective marketing strategies. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19(1), 54–73.Google Scholar
  24. Day, J., Dean, A. A., & Reynolds, P. L. (1998). Relationship marketing: Its key role in entrepreneurship. Long-Range Planning, 31(6), 828–837.Google Scholar
  25. Demangeot, D. C., Broderick, P. J., Craig, P. S., Elliot, E. A., Xiao, Y., & Wilson, E. (2015). A multicultural blend: Metaphors, cognitive social capital and multiculturalism. International Marketing Review, 32(2), 200–218.Google Scholar
  26. Deslauriers, J. P. (1991). Recherche qualitative: Guide pratique. Montréal: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  27. Dyer, L. M., & Ross, C. A. (2000). Ethnic enterprises and their clientele. Journal of Small Business Management, 38(2), 48–66.Google Scholar
  28. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532–550.Google Scholar
  29. Elvira, F. B., & Xhaferi-Elona, F. (2014). The spontaneity of international market and the need for entrepreneurial marketing evidence of Albanian entrepreneurs in Italy. Business Management Dynamics, 3(10), 14–20.Google Scholar
  30. Emslie, L., Bent, R., & Seaman, C. (2007). Missed opportunities? Reaching the ethnic consumer market. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(2), 168–173.Google Scholar
  31. Erdem, K., & Schmidt, R. Ä. (2008). Ethnic marketing for Turks in Germany. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 36(3), 212–223.Google Scholar
  32. Gilmore, A., Carson, D., & Grant, K. (2001). SME marketing in practice. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 19(1), 6–11.Google Scholar
  33. Gouvernement du Québec. (2014). Immigration et démographie au Québec. Retrieved from http://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/recherches-statistiques/Pub_Immigration_et_demo_2015.pdf
  34. Hedberg, C., & Pettersson, K. (2012). Disadvantage, ethnic niching or pursuit of a vision? Journal of International Migration and Integration, 13(4), 423–440.Google Scholar
  35. Herjanto, H., & Gaur, S. S. (2011). Intercultural interaction and relationship selling in the banking industry. Journal of Services Research, 11(1), 101.Google Scholar
  36. Holland, J., & Gentry, J. W. (1999). Ethnic consumer reaction to targeted marketing: A theory of intercultural accommodation. Journal of Advertising, 28(1), 65–77.Google Scholar
  37. Huang, Y., Oppewal, H., & Mavondo, F. (2013). The influence of ethnic attributes on ethnic consumer choice of service outlet. European Journal of Marketing, 47(5/6), 877–898.Google Scholar
  38. Iyer, G. R., & Shapiro, J. M. (1999). Ethnic entrepreneurial and marketing systems: Implications for the global economy. Journal of International Marketing, 7(4), 83–110.Google Scholar
  39. Jamal, A. (2003). Retailing in a multicultural world: The interplay of retailing, ethnic identity and consumption. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 10(1), 1.Google Scholar
  40. Jamal, A. (2005). Playing to win: An explorative study of marketing strategies of small ethnic retail entrepreneurs in the UK. Journal of Retailing et Consumer Services, 12(1), 1–13.Google Scholar
  41. Jamal, A., & Sharifuddin, J. (2015). Perceived value and perceived usefulness of halal labeling: The role of religion and culture. Journal of Business Research, 68(5), 933–941.Google Scholar
  42. Jamal, A., Peattie, S., & Peattie, K. (2012). Ethnic minority consumers’ responses to sales promotions in the packaged food market. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 19(1), 98–108.Google Scholar
  43. Jang, S., Liu, Y., & Namkung, Y. (2011). Effects of authentic atmospherics in ethnic restaurants: Investigating Chinese restaurants. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 23(5), 662–680.Google Scholar
  44. Jean, R. J. B., Tan, D., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2011). Ethnic ties, location choice, and firm performance in foreign direct investment: A study of Taiwanese business groups FDI in China. International Business Review, 20(6), 627–635.Google Scholar
  45. Jones, M. A., Reynolds, K. E., Arnold, M. J., Gabler, C. B., Gillison, S. T., & Landers, V. M. (2015). Exploring consumers’ attitude towards relationship marketing. Journal of Services Marketing, 29(3), 188–199.Google Scholar
  46. Kauppinen-Räisänen, H., Gummerus, J., & Lehtola, K. (2013). Remembered eating experiences described by the self, place, food, context and time. British Food Journal, 115(5), 666–685.Google Scholar
  47. Khosa, R. M., & Kalitanyi, V. (2015). Migration reasons, traits and entrepreneurial motivation of African immigrant entrepreneurs: Towards an entrepreneurial migration progression. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 9(2), 132–155.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JEC-07-2014-0011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kloosterman, R. C. (2010). Matching opportunities with resources: A framework for analysing (migrant) entrepreneurship from a mixed embeddedness perspective. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 22(1), 25–45.Google Scholar
  49. Knight, J. (2015). The evolving motivations of ethnic entrepreneurs. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 9(2), 114–131.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JEC-10-2013-0031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee, J. (1999). Retail niche domination among African American, Jewish, and Korean entrepreneurs: Competition, coethnic advantage, and coethnic disadvantage. American Behavioral Scientist, 42(9), 1398–1416.Google Scholar
  51. Lee, J., Kim, S., & Pan, S. (2014). The role of relationship marketing investments in customer reciprocity. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(8), 1200–1224.Google Scholar
  52. Liu, Y., & Jang, S. S. (2009). Perceptions of Chinese restaurants in the US: What affects customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(3), 338–348.Google Scholar
  53. Logan, J. R., & Alba, R. D. (1999). Minority niches and immigrant enclaves in New York and Los Angeles: Trends and impacts. In F. D. Bean & S. Bell-Rose (Eds.), Immigration and opportunity: Race, ethnicity, and employment in the United States. New York: Russell Foundation.Google Scholar
  54. Marinkovic, V., Senic, V., & Mimovic, P. (2015). Factors affecting choice and image of ethnic restaurants in Serbia. British Food Journal, 117(7), 1903–1920.Google Scholar
  55. Masurel, E., Nijkamp, P., & Vindigni, G. (2004). Breeding places for ethnic entrepreneurs: A comparative marketing approach. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 16(1), 77–86.Google Scholar
  56. McPherson, M. (2007). A comparison of marketing practices: Perspectives from first and second generation UK South Asians. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 31(2), 174–186.Google Scholar
  57. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: A method sourcebook (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  58. Moriarty, J., Jones, R., Rowley, J., & Kupiec-Teahan, B. (2008). Marketing in small hotels: A qualitative study. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 26(3), 293–315.Google Scholar
  59. Musalem, A., & Joshi, Y. V. (2009). Research note—How much should you invest in each customer relationship? A competitive strategic approach. Marketing Science, 28(3), 555–565.Google Scholar
  60. Ndoen, M. L., Gorter, K., Nijkamp, P., & Rietveld, P. (2002). Entrepreneurial migration and regional opportunities in developing countries. The Annals of Regional Science, 36(3), 421–436.Google Scholar
  61. Ndofor, H. A., & Priem, R. L. (2011). Immigrant entrepreneurs, the ethnic enclave strategy, and venture performance. Journal of Management, 37(3), 790–818.Google Scholar
  62. Nwankwo, S., & Lindridge, A. (1998). Marketing to ethnic minorities in Britain. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 4(7), 200–216.Google Scholar
  63. O’Donnell, A. (2011). Small firm marketing: Synthesising and supporting received wisdom. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 18(4), 781–805.Google Scholar
  64. Palumbo, F. A., & Teich, I. (2004). Market segmentation based on level of acculturation. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 22(4), 472–484.Google Scholar
  65. Pang, M., & Lau, A. (1998). The Chinese in Britain: Working towards success? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 9(5), 862–874.Google Scholar
  66. Pankhania, A., Lee, N., & Hooley, G. (2007). Within-country ethnic differences and product positioning: A comparison of the perceptions of two British sub-cultures. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 15(2–3), 121–138.Google Scholar
  67. Paré, S., Menzies, T. V., Filion, L. J., & Brenner, G. A. (2008). Social capital and co-leadership in ethnic enterprises in Canada. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 2(1), 52–72.  https://doi.org/10.1108/17506200810861258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Peñaloza, L., & Gilly, M. C. (1999). Marketer acculturation: The changer and the changed. The Journal of Marketing, 63, 84–104.Google Scholar
  69. Piperopoulos, P. (2010). Ethnic minority businesses and immigrant entrepreneurship in Greece. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 17(1), 139–158.Google Scholar
  70. Pires, G. D. (1999). Domestic cross cultural marketing in Australia: A critique of the segmentation rationale. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 7(4), 33–44.Google Scholar
  71. Pires, G. D., & Stanton, J. (2002). Ethnic marketing ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 36(1), 111–118.Google Scholar
  72. Pires, G. D., Stanton, J., & Stanton, P. (2011). Revisiting the substantiality criterion: From ethnic marketing to market segmentation. Journal of Business Research, 64(9), 988–996.Google Scholar
  73. Quinn, M., & Devasagayam, R. (2005). Building brand community among ethnic diaspora in the USA: Strategic implications for marketers. Journal of Brand Management, 13(2), 101–114.Google Scholar
  74. Radaev, V. (1994). Ethnic entrepreneurship. Problems of Economic Transition, 37(4), 57.Google Scholar
  75. Rath, J. (2002). A quintessential immigrant niche? The non-case of immigrants in the Dutch construction industry. Entrepreneurship et Regional Development, 14(4), 355–372.Google Scholar
  76. Reinartz, W., Krafft, M., & Hoyer, W. D. (2004). The customer relationship management process: Its measurement and impact on performance. Journal of Marketing Research, 41(3), 293–305.Google Scholar
  77. Richardson Jr., C. W. (2012). Diversity performance as a factor in marketing programs: A comparative analysis across ethnic group target audiences. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 6(5), 62–70.Google Scholar
  78. Rusinovic, K. (2008). Moving between markets? Immigrant entrepreneurs in different markets. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior et Research, 14(6), 440–454.Google Scholar
  79. Segev, S., Ruvio, A., Shoham, A., & Velan, D. (2014). Acculturation and consumer loyalty among immigrants: A cross-national study. European Journal of Marketing, 48(9/10), 1579–1599.Google Scholar
  80. Shani, D., & Chalasani, S. (1992). Exploiting niches using relationship marketing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 9(3), 33–42.Google Scholar
  81. Shanmuganathan, P., Stone, M., & Foss, B. (2004). Ethnic banking in the United States. Limras Market Facts Quarterly, 23, 22–27.Google Scholar
  82. Shin, K. H. (2014). Korean entrepreneurs in Kansas City metropolitan area: An immigrant community under ethnic local and global intersection. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 8(4), 287–299.  https://doi.org/10.1108/JEC-11-2013-0034 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Siala, H., O’Keefe, R. M., & Hone, K. S. (2004). The impact of religious affiliation on trust in the context of electronic commerce. Interacting with Computers, 16(1), 7–27.Google Scholar
  84. Slater, S., & Yani-de-Soriano, M. (2010). Researching consumers in multicultural societies: Emerging methodological issues. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(11–12), 1143–1160.Google Scholar
  85. Soydas, Y., & Aleti, T. (2015). Immigrant and second-generation Turkish entrepreneurs in Melbourne, Australia: A qualitative investigation of entrepreneurial motivations. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 21(2), 154–174.Google Scholar
  86. Statistique Canada. (2009). La communauté arabe au Canada. Repéré à http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-621-x/89-621-x2007009-fra.htm
  87. Statistique Canada. (2011). Immigration et diversité ethnoculturelle au Canada. Repéré à http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-fra.cfm
  88. Statistique Québec. (2016). Recueil de statistiques sur l’immigration et la diversité au Québec. Retrieved from http://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/planification/BRO_RecueilStat_PlanificationImmigration.pdf
  89. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (2004). Les fondements de la recherche qualitative: techniques et procédures de développement de la théorie enracinée (p. 342). Trad. de la 2e édition de la version anglaise par Marc-Henry Soulet. Ville: Academic press Fribourg.Google Scholar
  90. Tamagnini, V., & Tregear, A. (1998). An assessment of niche marketing opportunities in the delicatessen meat sector. British Food Journal, 100(5), 228–235.Google Scholar
  91. Ueltschy, L. (2002). Multicultural marketing: Advertising strategies for the Mexican-American market. Marketing Management Journal, 12(1), 10–21.Google Scholar
  92. Varlander, S., & Julien, A. (2010). The effect of the internet on front-line employee skills: Exploring banking in Sweden and France. Service Industries Journal, 30(8), 1245–1261.Google Scholar
  93. Waldinger, R. (1986). Immigrant enterprise. Theory and Society, 15(1–2), 249–285.Google Scholar
  94. Waldinger, R. D., Aldrich, H., & Ward, R. (1990). Ethnic entrepreneurs: Immigrant business in industrial societies (Vol. 1). Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  95. Wei, Y., Li, Z., Burton, J., & Haynes, J. (2013). Are Chinese consumers created equally relational? Management Research Review, 36(1), 50–65.Google Scholar
  96. Wilkinson, I. F., & Cheng, C. (1999). Multicultural marketing in Australia: Synergy in diversity. Journal of International Marketing, 7(3), 106–125.Google Scholar
  97. Wright, L. T., Martin, L. M., & Stone, M. (2003). Exploring the characteristics, attitudes to targeting and relationship marketing of small ethnic minority businesses. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 12(2), 173–184.Google Scholar
  98. Wulf, K. D., Odekerken-Schröder, G., & Iacobucci, D. (2001). Investments in consumer relationships: A cross-country and cross-industry exploration. Journal of Marketing, 65(4), 33–50.Google Scholar
  99. Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research: Design and methods (4th ed.p. 219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  100. Yu, Y. (2015). Relationship investment and reciprocity: An empirical investigation. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 30(5), 637–647.Google Scholar
  101. Zhou, M., & Cho, M. (2010). Noneconomic effects of ethnic entrepreneurship: A focused look at the Chinese and Korean enclave economies in Los Angeles. Thunderbird International Business Review, 52(2), 83–96.Google Scholar
  102. Zouaghi, S. (2015). Ethnic segmentation in marketing: A tool for social domination in France. Society and Business Review, 10(3), 243–257.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramzi Belkacemi
    • 1
    Email author
  • William Menvielle
    • 1
  • Hédia El Ourabi
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Quebec in Trois-RivièresTrois-RivièresCanada

Personalised recommendations