Physical Therapy

  • Shamard CharlesEmail author
  • Alexios G. Carayannopoulos
  • Amanda Markow


This chapter will provide a brief overview of physical therapy, including historical perspectives, uses and indications, evidence for efficacy, and recommended reading, with emphasis placed on pain education, cost-effective treatment options, and the interdisciplinary approach.


Pain perception Neuropathic pain Manipulation Microcurrent stimulation Biopsychosocial model Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation Rhythmic stabilization training Combination of isotonic exercises 

Recommended Reading

  1. Deyo RA, Mirza SK, Martin BI. Back pain prevalence and visit rates: estimates from US national surveys, 2002. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31(23):2724–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dieleman JL, Baral R, Birger M, Bui AL, Bulchis A, Chapin A, et al. US Spending on Personal Health Care and Public Health, 1996–2013. JAMA. 2016;316(24):2627. Scholar
  3. Finestone HM, Juurlink DN, Power B, Gomes T, Pimlott N. Opioid prescribing is a surrogate for inadequate pain management resources. Can Fam Physician. 2016;62(6):465–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Fritz JM, Brennan GP, Hunter SJ. Physical Therapy or Advanced Imaging as First Management Strategy Following a New Consultation for Low Back Pain in Primary Care: Associations with Future Health Care Utilization and Charges. Health Serv Res. 2015;50(6):1927–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kofotolis N, Kellis E. Effects of Two 4-Week Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Programs on Muscle Endurance, Flexibility, and Functional Performance in Women With Chronic Low Back Pain. Phys Ther. 2006;86:1001–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Licciardone JC. The epidemiology and medical management of low back pain during ambulatory medical care visits in the United States. Osteopat Med Prim Care. 2008;2:11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Licht S. History. In: Licht S, editor. Therapeutic Exercise. 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Waverly Press; 1965. p. 426–71.Google Scholar
  8. Louw A, Puentedura E. Therapeutic Neuroscience Education: Teaching Patient about Pain; A Clinicians Guide. 1st ed: International Spine and Pain Institute; 2013. ISBN: 978–0985718640Google Scholar
  9. Moller AR. PAIN Its Anatomy, Physiology and Treatment. 2nd ed. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform; 2011. ISBN: 978-1466395107.Google Scholar
  10. Sluka KA. Mechanisms and Management of Pain for the Physical Therapist. 1st ed. International Association for the Study of Pain; 2009. ISBN: 978-0931092770.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shamard Charles
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexios G. Carayannopoulos
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Amanda Markow
    • 7
  1. 1.Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, NBC News GroupNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationRhode Island HospitalProvidenceUSA
  3. 3.Comprehensive Spine Center: Rhode Island HospitalProvidenceUSA
  4. 4.Newport HospitalNewportUSA
  5. 5.Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  6. 6.American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians, Rhode Island ChapterPaducahUSA
  7. 7.New York Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist HospitalNew YorkUSA

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