Sudan—South Sudan—Darfur: On the Road to Lasting Peace
Africa’s longest-running civil war in Sudan ended in 2005 with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). The ceasefire opened the way for an internationally monitored referendum in South Sudan and the deployment of the UN-African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon made Sudan, and Darfur in particular, his top priorities. Following the referendum, South Sudan formally separated from Sudan in 2011 and the United Nations established the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS). Despite all efforts, however, the peace process in Darfur remained very slim. The internal fighting in South Sudan in 2011–2016 brought the country and the entire region on the brink of a humanitarian catastrophe.