Advertisement

The Impact of the Destination Image of Greece on Tourists’ Behavioral Intentions

  • Amalia TriantafillidouEmail author
  • Prodromos Yannas
  • Georgios Lappas
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics book series (SPBE)

Abstract

Greece’s image has suffered from inconsistent advertising campaigns which positioned Greece as the ideal destination for summer holidays and heritage tourism. This fragmented image was further distorted as the result of the economic crisis. However, less is known about the current perceptions of foreign tourists regarding the image of Greece. The aim of the present study is twofold: firstly, to assess tourists’ perceptions of the cognitive image of Greece and, secondly, to test the effects of the different cognitive image dimensions on tourists’ revisit and recommendation intentions. Toward that end, a survey was conducted in the city of Athens using a self-administered questionnaire which was delivered to foreign visitors. Results indicate that Greece is perceived as a destination for heritage and leisure tourism. Moreover, the cognitive component of destination image is comprised of four factors, namely, natural/cultural resources, leisure/recreation, tourist infrastructure, and experience/value. Not all cognitive image factors exert influence on tourists’ revisit intentions. More specifically, intentions to revisit Greece are primarily affected by the leisure/entertainment factor followed by experience/value and cultural/natural factors, while intentions to recommend are influenced mainly by the factors of experience/value and cultural/natural resources and to a lesser extent by the leisure/recreation factor. A number of managerial implications are discussed that would enable destination managers to better promote Greece and to entice tourists’ loyalty.

Keywords

Destination image Cognitive component Foreign tourists Behavioral intentions 

References

  1. Agapito, D., Valle, P. O., & Mendes, J. C. (2013). The cognitive-affective-conative model of destination image: A confirmatory analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(5), 471–481.Google Scholar
  2. Baloglu, S. (2000). A path analytic model of visitation intention involving information sources, socio-psychological motivations, and destination image. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 8(3), 81–90.Google Scholar
  3. Baloglu, S., & Mangaloglu, M. (2001). Tourism destination images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as perceived by US-based tour operators and travel agents. Tourism Management, 22(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  4. Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(4), 868–897.Google Scholar
  5. Beerli, A., & Martin, J. D. (2004). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 657–681.Google Scholar
  6. Bisa, S. (2013). Rebranding Greece: Why nation branding matters. Exchange: The Journal of Public Diplomacy, 4(1), 61–67.Google Scholar
  7. Bozbay, Z., & Ozen, H. (2008). The assessment of Greece’s image as a tourism destination. MIBES: Transactions, 2(1), 14–27.Google Scholar
  8. Chen, C., & Tsai, D. (2007). How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tourism Management, 28(4), 1115–1122.Google Scholar
  9. Chi, C., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: An integrated approach. Tourism Management, 29(4), 624–636.Google Scholar
  10. Driscoll, A., Lawson, R., & Niven, B. (1994). Measuring tourists’ destination perceptions. Annals of Tourism Research, 21(3), 499–511.Google Scholar
  11. Echtner, C. M., & Ritchie, J. B. (1993). The measurement of destination image: An empirical assessment. Journal of Travel Research, 31(4), 3–13.Google Scholar
  12. Fakeye, P. C., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image differences between prospective, first-time, and repeat visitors to the lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30(2), 10–16.Google Scholar
  13. Gallarza, M. G., Saura, I. G., & García, H. C. (2002). Destination image: Towards a conceptual framework. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 56–78.Google Scholar
  14. Gartner, W. C. (1994). Image formation process. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 2(2–3), 191–216.Google Scholar
  15. Gertner, D., & Kotler, P. (2004). How can a place correct a negative image? Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 1(1), 50–57.Google Scholar
  16. Greece Tourist Arrivals. Retrieved from http://www.tradingeconomics.com/greece/tourist-arrivals
  17. Hays, S., Page, S. J., & Buhalis, D. (2013). Social media as a destination marketing tool: Its use by National Tourism Organisations. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(3), 211–239.Google Scholar
  18. Hui, T. K., & Wan, T. W. D. (2003). Singapore’s image as a tourist destination. International Journal of Tourism Research, 5(4), 305–313.Google Scholar
  19. International Tourism. Number of arrivals. Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ST.INT.ARVL?year_low_desc=true
  20. Kaplanidou, K. (2009). Relationships among behavioral intentions, cognitive event and destination images among different geographic regions of Olympic games spectators. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 14(4), 249–272.Google Scholar
  21. Kokkali, P., Koutsouris, A., & Chrysochou, P. (2011). Tourism destination image (TDI): The case of Pertouli, Greece.Google Scholar
  22. Kouris, A. (2009). Destination brand strategy: The case of Greece. In Cai et al. (Eds.), Tourism branding: Communities in action (Bridging tourism theory and practice) (Vol. 1, pp. 161–175). Bingley: Emerald Group.Google Scholar
  23. Llodrà-Riera, I., Martínez-Ruiz, M. P., Jiménez-Zarco, A. I., & Izquierdo-Yusta, A. (2015). A multidimensional analysis of the information sources construct and its relevance for destination image formation. Tourism Μanagement, 48, 319–328.Google Scholar
  24. Martín-Santana, J. D., Beerli-Palacio, A., & Nazzareno, P. A. (2017). Antecedents and consequences of destination image gap. Annals of Tourism Research, 62, 13–25.Google Scholar
  25. Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  26. Obenour, W., Lengfelder, J., & Groves, D. (2005). The development of a destination through the image assessment of six geographic markets. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(2), 107–119.Google Scholar
  27. Papadimitriou, D., Kaplanidou, K., & Apostolopoulou, A. (2015). Destination personality, affective image, and behavioral intentions in domestic urban tourism. Journal of Travel Research, 54(3), 302–315.Google Scholar
  28. Prayag, G. (2009). Tourists’ evaluations of destination image, satisfaction, and future behavioral intentions—The case of Mauritius. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 26(8), 836–853.Google Scholar
  29. San Martín, H., & Del Bosque, I. (2008). Exploring the cognitive–affective nature of destination image and the role of psychological factors in its formation. Tourism Management, 29(2), 263–277.Google Scholar
  30. SETE. (2016). Greek tourism: Developments-prospects, Issue 1.Google Scholar
  31. Stylos, N., Vassiliadis, C. A., Bellou, V., & Andronikidis, A. (2016). Destination images, holistic images and personal normative beliefs: Predictors of intention to revisit a destination. Tourism Management, 53, 40–60.Google Scholar
  32. Tasci, A. D., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination image and its functional relationships. Journal of Travel Research, 45(4), 413–425.Google Scholar
  33. Tasci, A. D., Gartner, W. C., & Cavusgil, S. T. (2007). Conceptualization and operationalization of destination image. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 31(2), 194–223.Google Scholar
  34. Vazou, E. (2014). From posters to posts: Greece moves beyond tourism campaigns to eDestination branding. International Journal of Cultural and Digital Tourism, 1(1), 38–52.Google Scholar
  35. Vitouladiti, O. (2013). The comparison of secondary and primary tourism destination image: Serving as a bridge between expectation and experience and guiding effective marketing and management strategies. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, 8(1), 53–91.Google Scholar
  36. Wang, C. Y., & Hsu, M. K. (2010). The relationships of destination image, satisfaction, and behavioral intentions: An integrated model. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(8), 829–843.Google Scholar
  37. Yannas, P., & Simeli, I. (2012). The destination image of Thessaloniki. In Proceedings of International Conference on Contemporary Marketing Issues, Thessaloniki (pp. 672–677).Google Scholar
  38. Zacharia, A., & Spais, G. (2017). Holiday destination image and personality of a Greek Island during an economic recession period and the intermediate effect of the utilitarian and non-utilitarian needs. Journal of Promotion Management, 23, 1–22.Google Scholar
  39. Zhang, H., Fu, X., Cai, L. A., & Lu, L. (2014). Destination image and tourist loyalty: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 40, 213–223.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amalia Triantafillidou
    • 1
    Email author
  • Prodromos Yannas
    • 2
  • Georgios Lappas
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Macedonia University of Applied SciencesKastoriaGreece
  2. 2.Piraeus University of Applied SciencesAigaleoGreece

Personalised recommendations