Finishing Stages

  • Padhraig Fleming
  • Jadbinder Seehra
Part of the BDJ Clinician’s Guides book series (BDJCG)


The finishing stage of treatment generally involves detailing the overall occlusion and individual tooth position prior to removing the fixed appliance. It tends to follow space closure in extraction cases, may involve preservation of any space closure and incorporates completion of intra-arch and inter-arch objectives. This stage of treatment may span anything from a matter of weeks to a number of months with more time-consuming finishing changes including torque correction, while other alignment and vertical changes tend to improve more rapidly.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Padhraig Fleming
    • 1
  • Jadbinder Seehra
    • 2
  1. 1.Orthodontics DepartmentQueen Mary University of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of OrthodonticsKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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