Soft-Water Lobelia Lakes in Poland

  • Dariusz Borowiak
  • Ryszard Piotrowicz
  • Kamil Nowiński
  • Piotr KlimaszykEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 86)


The lobelia lakes, unique and rare in Poland, are located mainly in northern part of country in moraine plateaus of Bytów and Kashubian Lakelands and outwash plains of Tuchola Forest and Charzykowy. In the middle of the twentieth century, there were over 190 lobelia lakes in Poland. Lobelia lakes are classified as so-called soft-water lakes due to low concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Their waters are weakly buffered and usually have acid reaction and also small amount of biogenic elements. Lobelia lakes are overgrown by specific plant species – isoetids – adapted to the poor habitat: Lobelia dortmanna, Isöetes lacustris, Littorella uniflora and several other accompanying species. The lobelia lakes in Poland are prone to degradation and loss of their unique values. The most serious threats include acidification, humification deposition, alkalinization, eutrophication by agricultural activities or recreational use and lowering of water level induced by climate changes.


Eutrophication Humification Isöetes lacustris Lakes Littorella uniflora Lobelia dortmanna 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dariusz Borowiak
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ryszard Piotrowicz
    • 3
  • Kamil Nowiński
    • 1
  • Piotr Klimaszyk
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of LimnologyUniversity of GdańskGdańskPoland
  2. 2.Limnological Station in BorucinoUniversity of GdańskBorucinoPoland
  3. 3.Department of Water ProtectionA. Mickiewicz UniversityPoznańPoland

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