Internal Phosphorus Loading in Eutrophic Lakes in Western Poland

  • Katarzyna Kowalczewska-MaduraEmail author
  • Renata Dondajewska
  • Ryszard Gołdyn
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 86)


We hypothesized that the variability of P internal loading in lakes and reservoirs depends on the trophic state of analysed waterbodies, as well as spatial (different water depths) and temporal (season) aspect in particular waterbodies. Additionally, year-to-year changes of P loading in lakes restored with variable methods (sustainable restoration, P inactivation with iron compounds and magnesium chloride, nitrate treatment and effective microorganisms (EM) application) were expected. To verify these assumptions, we have analysed the process of internal P loading in 40 waterbodies situated in Western Poland, based on the ex situ experiments on intact sediment cores, collected from different water depths in various seasons. Additionally, basic sediment characteristics (TP and its fraction content, organic matter, SRP and TP in pore water and water above sediments) were studied. The most intensive P release from sediments into water column was noted in summer, especially at greater depths and in heavily eutrophicated lakes. Internal P loading in restored lakes usually decreased, apart from lakes in which EM were used.


Bottom sediments Eutrophic lakes Internal loading Phosphorus 



This study was supported by (1) the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), grant no. N 305 108 31/3632 and partly by grant no. NN305 372838; (2) KBN, grant no. 3T09D 01527; and (3) the Fund for the statutory activities of the Department of Water Protection.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katarzyna Kowalczewska-Madura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Renata Dondajewska
    • 1
  • Ryszard Gołdyn
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Water Protection, Faculty of BiologyAdam Mickiewicz UniversityPoznańPoland

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