Nutrient Balance of North-Eastern Poland Lakes

  • Jolanta GrochowskaEmail author
  • Renata Tandyrak
  • Renata Augustyniak
  • Michał Łopata
  • Katarzyna Parszuto
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 86)


In order to determine the nutrient balance two groups of the lakes were selected: ten flow lakes, namely, Mielenko, Karczemne, Klasztorne Małe, Klasztorne Duże, Pasłęk, Wymój, Sarąg, Łęguty, Isąg and Suskie (located in Olsztyn Lake District and Kashubian Lake District), and ten non-flow lakes, namely, Czarne, Długie, Podkówka, Starodworskie, Sukiel, Track, Tyrsko, Kepijko, Paskierz and Podąbek (located in Olsztyn Lake District and in Iławskie Lake District).

The annual phosphorus load introduced into flow lakes ranged from 17.2 kg P (Mielenko) to 7,754.5 kg P (Isąg) and nitrogen from 202.6 kg N (Mielenko) to 81,876.5 kg N (Isąg). Nutrient load was mainly introduced with surface water inflow (46–96%). In the group of flow lakes, Mielenko, Karczemne and Suskie were fed primarily with surface runoff from the basin. The surface watercourses flowing into them were periodic, and the amount of water flowing through them was small. Annual load of phosphorus introduced into non-flow lakes were from 4.4 kg N (Czarne) to 169.8 kg N (Track) and nitrogen from 89.4 kg N (Czarne) to 2,311.8 kg N (Track).

In case of non-flow lakes, the main source of supply was usually the runoff from the direct catchment (from 40% to 97%).

It was found that the majority of flow lakes (except Lakes Isąg and Suskie) showed negative retention in relation to nutrients. Non-flow lakes retain the charge of phosphorus and nitrogen, which is introduced from various sources.


Catchment area Flow Nitrogen Nutrient balance Phosphorus 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jolanta Grochowska
    • 1
    Email author
  • Renata Tandyrak
    • 1
  • Renata Augustyniak
    • 1
  • Michał Łopata
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Parszuto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Water Protection Engineering, Faculty of Environmental SciencesUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

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