A Cipher Class Based on Golden S-Boxes for Creating Clone-Resistant Identities

  • Saleh MulhemEmail author
  • Ayoub Mars
  • Wael Adi
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11398)


Secret Unknown Cipher (SUC) concept was proposed as a promising technique to create clone-resistant electronic units as alternative to overcome the weaknesses of the traditional Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs). A low-complexity real-field realization scenario for the proposed SUC concept is presented in this work. The key realization concept is making use of the so-called Golden S-Boxes as basic building blocks of block ciphers. According to the new proposed concept, the cipher creator called “GENIE” generates unknown ciphers with relatively low memory and time complexities. The target technology to accommodate the proposed self-created hard to predict SUCs is the non-volatile FPGA System on Chip (SoC) units converting them into clone-resistant entities.


Secret Unknown Cipher Physical Unclonable Function Golden S-Boxes 



The authors would like to thank Volkswagen AG as well as the German Academic Exchange Service DAAD scholarship program, the Federal Foreign Office funding by DAAD combined scholarship and support programme (STIBET) for supporting this basic research activity.


  1. 1.
    Xu, T., Potkonjak, M.: The digital bidirectional function as a hardware security primitive: architecture and applications. In: 2015 IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), pp. 335–340. IEEE, July 2015Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Delvaux, J., Gu, D., Peeters, R., Verbauwhede, I.: A survey on lightweight entity authentication with strong PUFs. Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2014/977Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rührmair, U., Sehnke, F., Sölter, J., Dror, G., Devadas, S., Schmidhuber, J.: Modeling attacks on physical unclonable functions. In: Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 237–249. ACM, October 2010Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adi, W.: Clone-resistant DNA-like secured dynamic identity. In: ECSIS Symposium on Bioinspired Learning and Intelligent Systems for Security, BLISS 2008, pp. 148–153. IEEE (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Xu, T., Potkonjak, M.: Robust and flexible FPGA-based digital PUF. In: 2014 24th International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL), pp. 1–6. IEEE, September 2014Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leander, G., Poschmann, A.: On the classification of 4 bit S-Boxes. In: Carlet, C., Sunar, B. (eds.) WAIFI 2007. LNCS, vol. 4547, pp. 159–176. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Saarinen, M.-J.O.: Cryptographic analysis of all 4 × 4-bit S-Boxes. In: Miri, A., Vaudenay, S. (eds.) SAC 2011. LNCS, vol. 7118, pp. 118–133. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). Scholar
  8. 8.
    Daemen, J., Rijmen, V.: The Design of Rijndael: AES - The Advanced Encryption Standard. Springer, Heidelberg (2001). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fyrbiak, M., Kison, C., Jeske, M., Adi, W.: Combined HW-SW adaptive clone-resistant functions as physical security anchors. In: NASA/ESA Conference on Adaptive Hardware and Systems, AHS 2013 (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoang, V.T., Rogaway, P.: On generalized feistel networks. In: Rabin, T. (ed.) CRYPTO 2010. LNCS, vol. 6223, pp. 613–630. Springer, Heidelberg (2010). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kolay, S., Mukhopadhyay, D.: Khudra: a new lightweight block cipher for FPGAs. In: Chakraborty, R.S., Matyas, V., Schaumont, P. (eds.) SPACE 2014. LNCS, vol. 8804, pp. 126–145. Springer, Cham (2014). Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wu, J., O’Neill, M.: On foundation and construction of physical unclonable functions. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2010, p. 171 (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mars, A., et al.: Random stream cipher as a PUF-like identity in FPGA environment. In: Proceedings of 2017 7th International Conference on Emerging Security Technologies, EST 2017 (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Adi, W., et al.: Generic identification protocols by deploying Secret Unknown Ciphers (SUCs). In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics - Taiwan, ICCE-TW 2017, pp. 255–256 (2017)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Computer and Network EngineeringTU BraunschweigBraunschweigGermany

Personalised recommendations