Advertisement

Vernacular Architecture in Arid Climates: Adaptation to Climate Change

  • Nadia Samia Daoudi
  • Djamel Mestoul
  • Samia Lamraoui
  • Aicha Boussoualim
  • Luc Adolphe
  • Rafik Bensalem
Chapter

Abstract

People working in the field of vernacular architecture located in arid zones acknowledge that these settlements have developed urban and architectural morphologies well adapted to the extreme physical environment. They identify adaptive features in urban and architectural patterns, cohesive social structure, and finally, adaptive behaviors derived from an indigenous “know-how.”

On the other hand, field research in climate change affirms that the human groups most exposed to climate change are those located in developing countries; the Saharan vernacular settlements testify to this assertion. Nevertheless, as regards adaptability to climate change, the indigenous people of the Sahara retain specific knowledge concerning resilient eco-systems. Furthermore, it is recognized that this indigenous knowledge plays a significant role in maintaining local socio-ecologic systems which contribute to socially responsible resilience toward sustainability.

This study highlights the role of social cohesion in implementing pro-environmental behavior and adaptive actions to reduce the negative effects of climate change on indigenous communities of the northern Sahara. We base this argument on the results of in-situ investigations with the objective of comprehending and evaluating the indigenous knowledge and adaptive capacities of desert oasis dwellers to both ordinary and extreme weather situations stemming from climate change. The case studies are Algerian Saharan vernacular settlements of the M’Zab Valley and of the Gourara region.

Keywords

Socially responsible resilience Pro-environmental behavior Saharan vernacular settlements Climate change Sustainability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We want to thank Mrs. Leslie Belay for helping in the writing process.

References

  1. Adger, W. N. (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and extremes in coastal, Vietnam. World Development, 27, 249–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adger, W. N. (2003). Social capital, collective action and adaptation to climate change. Economic Geography, 79(4), 383–404.Google Scholar
  3. Adger, W. N., Huq, S., Brown, K., Conway, D., & Hulme, M. (2003). Adaptation to climate change in the developing world. Progress in Development studies, 3, 179–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adger, W. N., & Kelly, P. M., (1999). Social vulnerability to climate change and the architecture of entitlements. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 3, 4(3-4), 253–266.Google Scholar
  5. Adger, W. N., Barnett, J., Chapin, F. S., III, & Ellemor, H. (2011). This must be the place, underrepresentation of identity and meaning in climate change decision making. Global Environmental Politics, 11, 2, May 2011, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1989). Regulations of cognitive processes through perceived self-efficacy. Developmental Psychology, 25(5), 729–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71–81). New York: Academic. (Reprinted in H. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998), Source: http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html.Google Scholar
  8. Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J. D., & Paterson, J. (2011). Are we adapting to climate change? Global Environmental Change, 21, 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bisson, J. (1957). Le Gourara, étude de géographie humaine. Institut de recherche Sahariennes, Université d’Alger, mémoire n°3, 222 p.Google Scholar
  10. Bisson, J. (1990). Permanence d’une paysannerie au Sahara Algérien, l’exemple des confins du grand erg occidental, Options méditerranéennes, Sér. A/n°11 1990, les systèmes agricoles oasiens.Google Scholar
  11. Bisson, J. (1999). Gourara, in 21 Gland-Hadjarien, Aix-en-Provence, Edisud, Volumes, 3188–3198.Google Scholar
  12. Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I., & Wisner, B. (1994). At risk : Natural hazards, people’s vulnerability, and disasters (Vol. xiv, 284 p). London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Chishakwe, N., Murray, L., & Chambwera, M. (2012). Building climate change adaptation on community experiences: Lessons from community-based natural resource management in southern Africa. London: International Institute for Environment and Development.Google Scholar
  14. Cutter, S. L. (1999). Vulnerability to environmental hazards. Progress in Human Geography, 20(4), 529–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cutter, S. L., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., & Webb, J. (2008). A place based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change, 18, 598–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cutter, S. L., Emrich, C. T., Webb, J., & Morath, D. (2009). Social vulnerability to climate variability hazards, a review of the literature. Hazards and Vulnerability Research Institute, a final report.Google Scholar
  17. Daoudi, N. S., Boussoualim, A., Lamaraoui, S., Khélifi, L., Mestoul, D., Adolphe, L., & Bensalem, R. (2011). Environmental adaptative capacities in aid to the valorization of vernacular Islamic architecture: Case study of two Algeria palm trees settlements. Peer Review, Lonaard Magazine; Jul 2011, 1(4), 110.Google Scholar
  18. Despois, J. (1958). Le Souf et le Gourara (Sahara). Annales de Géographie, 67(361), 263–264.Google Scholar
  19. Didillon, H. Didillon, J. M., Donnadieu, C., & Donnadieu, P. (1977). Habiter le désert, les maisons mozabites. Editions Pierre MARDAGA. Bruxelles, 254 p.Google Scholar
  20. Ericson, K. A., & Oliver, W. L. (1995). Cognitive skills. In N. J. Mackintosh & A. M. Colman (Eds.), learning and skills (pp. 37–55). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  21. Etherton, D. (1978). Algerian Oases. In P. Oliver (Ed.), Shelter in Africa (pp. 172–190). London: Barrie & Jenkins, 239 p.Google Scholar
  22. Fejika Speranza, C., Kiteme, B., Ambenje, P., et al. (2010). Indigenous knowledge related to climate variability and change: Insights from droughts in semi-arid areas of former Makueni District, Kenya. Climatic Change, 100–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Green, D., & Raygorodetsky, D. (2010). Indigenous knowledge of a changing climate. Climatic Change, 100, 239–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hountondji, P. J. (1997). Endogenous knowledge: Research trails. CODESIRA Book Series. 376 p.Google Scholar
  25. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPPC. (2007). Climate change, impact, adaptation and vulnerability, Working group II, Contribution to the fourth assessment, Report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Cambridge University group, 976p.Google Scholar
  26. Karp, D. G. (1996). Values and their effects on pro-environmental behavior. Environment and Behavior, 28, 111–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keim, M. E. (2008). Building human resilience the role of public health preparedness and response as an adaptation to climate change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(5), 508–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kelly, P. M., & Adger, W. N. (2000). Theory and practice in assessing vulnerability to climate change and facilitating adaptation. Climatic Change, 47, 325–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kessah, A. (1998). Eau et développement agricole au Sahara maghrébin, enjeux, conflits et arbitrages. Sècheresse, 9(2), 95–102.Google Scholar
  30. Klein, R. J. T., & Tol, R. S. J. (1997). Adaptation to climate change, options and technologies, an overview paper. Framework convention on climate change, technical paper, Institute of Environmental Studies.Google Scholar
  31. Kolawole, O. D., Ngwenya, B., & Mmopelwa, G. (2014). Ethno meteorology and scientific weather forecasting, small farmers and scientist perspectives on climate variability in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Climate risk management, 4-5, 43–58.Google Scholar
  32. Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to proenvironmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 239–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Moser, S. C. (2010). Communicating climate change: History, challenges, process and future directions. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 1(1), 31–53.Google Scholar
  34. Oliver, P. (2006). Built to meet the needs: Cultural issues in vernacular architecture. London: Elsevier, 445 p.Google Scholar
  35. Ravereau, A. (1981). Le M’Zab une leçon d’architecture. Editions Sindbad, 282 p.Google Scholar
  36. Remini, B., Achour, B., & Kechad, R. (2010). La foggara en Algérie: Un patrimoine hydraulique mondial. Revue des sciences de l’eau/Journal of Water Science, 23(2), 105–117.Google Scholar
  37. Sawitria, D. R., Hadiyantob, H., & Hadic, S. P. (2015). Pro-environmental behavior from a social cognitive theory perspective. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 23, 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Schipper, E. L. F. (2007). Climate change adaptation and development, exploring the linkages. Tyndall Centre, working paper, n°107.Google Scholar
  39. Schmitt, T. M. (2008). Protection du patrimoine culturel et transformation socioculturelle, La vallée du M’Zab, in Les pays du Maghreb, Contribution de la géographie allemande, publication coordonnée par Herbert Popp, Bayreuth.Google Scholar
  40. Smit, B., & Pilifosova, O. (2003). From adaptation of adaptive capacity and vulnerability reduction. In J. Smith, R. T. J. Klein, & S. Hiq (Eds.), Climate change, adaptive capacity, and development (pp. 9–28). London: Imperial College Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smit, B., Burton, I., Klein, R. J. T., & Wandel, J. (2000). An anatomy of adaptation to climate change and variability. Climatic Change, 45, 223–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Swart, R., Robinson, J., & Cohen, S. (2003). Climate change and sustainable development: Expanding the options. Climate Policy, 3(S1), 19–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nadia Samia Daoudi
    • 1
  • Djamel Mestoul
    • 1
  • Samia Lamraoui
    • 1
  • Aicha Boussoualim
    • 1
  • Luc Adolphe
    • 2
  • Rafik Bensalem
    • 1
  1. 1.Polytechnic School of Architecture and Urban PlanningAlgiersAlgeria
  2. 2.National Superior School of ArchitectureToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations