Advertisement

Leprosy in East Asia

  • W. Cairns S. SmithEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Neglected Tropical Diseases book series (NTD)

Abstract

The epidemiology of leprosy in East Asia has significantly changed over the past 100 years. There is interesting diversity between countries but the general trends have been similar. Over this period, the approach to leprosy control has changed from segregation to case detection and treatment with effective chemotherapy. The introduction of short course multidrug therapy in the 1980s and 1990s produced a dramatic fall in the number of patients registered for treatment of around 95%. Despite the introduction of effective chemotherapy, disability and discrimination due to leprosy remain a challenge often due to late diagnosis and complications of nerve injury. There has been no dramatic impact of chemotherapy on incidence of leprosy but there is a gradual decline in new case detection which in many countries predates the introduction of short course chemotherapy. This decline may be due to long term implementation of chemotherapy, either dapsone or multidrug therapy, use of BCG vaccine, and improving socio-economic circumstances. New targets, based on sero transmission, are now being pursued across East Asia based on novel approaches to new diagnostic tools and prophylaxis as well as early case finding and active contact management.

Keywords

Chemotherapy East Asia Epidemiology Leprosy Public health Trends 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Grateful thanks are due to Carole Vann of CIOMAL for contributing the section on Cambodia.

References

  1. Anonymous (1998) Leprosy elimination campaigns (LECs): progress during 1997–1989. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 73:177–184Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous (2001) Leprosy. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 76:173–180Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2003a) Leprosy elimination campaigns: impact on case detection. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 78:9–16Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2003b) Special action projects for the elimination of leprosy. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 78:253–260Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2007) Leprosy control in Thailand: trends in case detection, 1965–2005. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 82:261–272Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous (2008) Trends in the epidemiology of leprosy – Viet Nam. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 83:217–224Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous (2010) Progress in leprosy control: Indonesia, 1991–2008. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 85:249–264Google Scholar
  8. Anonymous (2014) Global leprosy update, 2013; reducing disease burden. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 89:389–400Google Scholar
  9. Barua S, Wakai S, Shwe T, Umenai T (1999) Leprosy elimination through integrated basic health services in Myanmar: the role of midwives. Lepr Rev 70:174–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cantlie J (1897) Report on the conditions under which leprosy occurs in China, Indo-China, Malaya, the Archipelago and Oceania. Essays on leprosy. London, The New Sydenham SocietyGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen XS, Li WZ, Jiang C, Ye GY (2001) Leprosy in China: epidemiological trends between 1949 and 1998. Bull World Health Organ 79:306–312PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Diletto C (1999) Elimination of leprosy in the Federated States of Micronesia by intensive case finding, treatment with WHO/MDT and administration of chemoprophylaxis. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 67:S10–S13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Leonard Wood Memorial (1944) World wide distribution and prevalence of leprosy. Int J Lepr 12(Suppl):1–12Google Scholar
  14. Li HY, Pan YL, Wang Y (1985) Leprosy control in Shandong Province, China, 1955–1983; some epidemiological features. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 53:79–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Louhenapessy AA, Zuiderhoek B (1997) A practical method of active case finding and epidemiological assessment: its origin and application in the leprosy control project in Indonesia. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 65:487–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lwin K, Myint T, Gyi MM, Thein M, Shwe T, Sein KN (2005) Leprosy control in Myanmar 1952–2003 – a success story. Lepr Rev 76:77–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Meima A, Gupte MD, Van Oortmarssen GJ, Habbema JD (1997) Trends in leprosy case detection rates. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis 65:305–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Meima A, Richardus JH, Habbema JD (2004a) Trends in leprosy case detection worldwide since 1985. Lepr Rev 75:19–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Meima A, Smith WC, Van Oortmarssen GJ, Richardus JH, Habbema JD (2004b) The future incidence of leprosy: a scenario analysis. Bull World Health Organ 82:373–380PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Montreewasuwat N, Peerapakorn S (1988) Leprosy situation in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19:515–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Noordeen SK (1993) Epidemiology and control of leprosy – a review of progress over the last 30 years. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87:515–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Noordeen SK, Lopez Bravo L, Sundaresan TK (1992) Estimated number of leprosy cases in the world. Bull World Health Organ 70:7–10PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Reveiz L, Buendia JA, Tellez D (2009) Chemoprophylaxis in contacts of patients with leprosy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Panam Salud Publica 26:341–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Richardus JH, Oskam L (2015) Protecting people against leprosy: chemoprophylaxis and immunoprophylaxis. Clin Dermatol 33:19–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Saikawa K (1981) The effect of rapid socio-economic development on the frequency of leprosy in a population. Lepr Rev 52(Suppl 1):167–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. SEARO (2011) Enhanced global strategy for further reducing the disease burden due to leprosy, 2011–2015: operational guidelines. New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  27. SEARO (2013) International Leprosy Summit: Overcoming the remaining challenges, Bangkok, Thailand, 24–26 July 2013. BangkokGoogle Scholar
  28. Setia MS, Steinmaus C, Ho CS, Rutherford GW (2006) The role of BCG in prevention of leprosy: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 6:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Uniting to Combat NTDs (2013) London declaration on neglected tropical diseases. LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. WHO (1982) Chemotherapy of leprosy for control programmes: report of a WHO Study Group. WHO Technical Report Series no 675Google Scholar
  31. WHO (1993) Handbook of resolutions and decisions of the World Health Assembly and the Executive Board. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  32. WHO (2003) Leprosy in the WHO Western Pacific Region 1991–2001. ManilaGoogle Scholar
  33. WHO (2012a) Accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases. A roadmap for implementation. Executive summary. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  34. WHO (2012b) WHO expert committee on leprosy. Eighth report. WHO Technical Report Series no 968Google Scholar
  35. WHO (2013) Sustaining the drive to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases. Second WHO report on neglected tropical diseases. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  36. Wu XS, Ning Y, Shi L, Jin Z, Yang JW (2000) An epidemiological analysis of leprosy from 1951–1996 in Sichuan. Indian J Lepr 72:215–226Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of AberdeenAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations