Coxa Vara

  • Arnold Suzuki
  • Anthony Cooper
  • James Fernandes


Coxa vara is a deformity of the neck-shaft angle of 110° or less. It has been classified a congenital, developmental, and acquired or traumatic cause. The developmental archetype is typified by a primary a defect of ossification in the proximal medial femur. This defect results in the application of abnormal mechanical forces to the proximal femur, its altered bone strength, and abnormal anatomy leading to a progressive, self-perpetuating deformity. A thorough history and physical examination is important to help identify the underlying cause of the deformity. The indications for surgical management include a Hilgenreiner epiphyseal angle (HEA) of greater than 60°, progression of deformity, leg length discrepancy, pain, and unilateral presentation. There are many described surgical techniques to correct coxa vara, but no one method has been found to be superior. More importantly, achieving a HEA of less than 38°, rather than the choice of surgical management, affords the greatest chance of success.


Coxa vara Traumatic coxa vara Congenital coxa vara Developmental coxa vara Acquired coxa vara Congenital femoral deficiency Proximal femoral focal deficiency Fairbank’s triangle 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arnold Suzuki
    • 1
  • Anthony Cooper
    • 1
  • James Fernandes
    • 2
  1. 1.BC Children’s HospitalVancouverCanada
  2. 2.Sheffield Children HospitalSheffieldUK

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