Bone Cysts Involving the Hip

  • Laura DeriuEmail author
  • Sattar Alshryda
  • James Wright


Simple (unicameral) bone cyst (SBC) and aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) are common benign bone tumors in children and adolescents. Although non-cancerous, they can cause substantive physical and psychosocial problems. Particularly for ABC, they mimic malignant tumors causing understandable anxiety and fear. As such, early and accurate diagnosis is essential. Primarily lytic lesions, they weaken the involved bones which predisposes to pathologic fractures, even with minimal trauma. Children are often restricted from sport and some daily living activities because of the fear of these fractures. Bone cysts involving the hip in children have special importance. Being a weight bearing joint, fractures in this area are a genuine risk, with concomitant occurrence of avascular necrosis being a concern. There are surgical challenges related to the pathoanatomy of these lesions, with only few surgical implants that can reliably stabilise the proximal femur without causing injury to the growth plate. This chapter provides an overview of both SBC and ABC, emphasizing currently accepted treatments and reported outcomes.


Unicameral bone cyst Simple bone cyst Aneurysmal bone cyst biopsy curettage pathologic fracture 


  1. 1.
    Alshryda S, Wright J. In: Alshryda H, editor. Chapter 44: Evidence based treatment for simple bone cyst. pediatric orthopaedics: an evidence-based approach to clinical questions. Banaszkiewicz: Springer; 2016. p. 51–75.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Virchow, R. Ueber die bildung von knochencysten ([On the formation of bony cysts) . Berlin, Germany: Monatsber d Kgl Akad D Wissenschaften. Sitzung der Phisikalischen-mathemat Klasse vom; 12 Juni; 1876. p. 369–381.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lagier R, Kramar C, Baud CA. Femoral unicameral bone cyst in a medieval child. Radiological and pathological study. Pediatr Radiol. 1987;17(6):498–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen J. Simple bone cysts. Studies of cyst fluid in six cases with a theory of pathogenesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1960;42-A:609–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chigira M, Maehara S, Arita S, Udagawa E. The aetiology and treatment of simple bone cysts. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1983a;65(5):633–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mirra JM, Bernard GW, Bullough PG, Johnston W, Mink G. Cementum-like bone production in solitary bone cysts (so-called “Cementoma” of long bones) report of three cases. electron microscopic observations supporting a synovial origin to the simple bone cyst. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;135:295–307.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yu CL, D'Astous J, Finnegan M. Simple bone cysts. The effects of methylprednisolone on synovial cells in culture. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;262:34–41.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Richkind KE, Mortimer E, Mowery-Rushton P, Fraire A. Translocation (16;20)(p11.2;q13). Sole cytogenetic abnormality in a unicameral bone cyst. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2002;137(2):153–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vayego SA, De Conti OJ, Varella-Garcia M. Complex cytogenetic rearrangement in a case of unicameral bone cyst. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 1996;86(1):46–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Komiya S, Minamitani K, Sasaguri Y, Hashimoto S, Morimatsu M, Inoue A. Simple Bone Cyst. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993a;287:204–11.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Komiya S, Minamitani K, Sasaguri Y, Hashimoto S, Morimatsu M, Inoue A. Simple bone cyst. Treatment by trepanation and studies on bone resorptive factors in cyst fluid with a theory of its pathogenesis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993b;287:204–11.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Herring JA. Tachdjians Pediatric Orthopaedics. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier; 2013.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Doganavsargil B, Ayhan E, Argin M, Pehlivanoglu B, Kececi B, Sezak M, Basdemir G, Oztop F. Cystic bone lesions: histopathological spectrum and diagnostic challenges. Turk Patoloji Derg. 2015;31(2):95–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shindell R, Connolly JF, Lippiello L. Prostaglandin levels in a unicameral bone cyst treated by corticosteroid injection. J Pediatr Orthop. 1987;7(2):210–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shindell R, Huurman WW, Lippiello L, Connolly JF. Prostaglandin levels in unicameral bone cysts treated by Intralesional Steroid Injection. J Pediatr Orthop. 1989a;9(5):516–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hart PH, Burgess DR, Vitti GF, Hamilton JA. Interleukin-4 stimulates human monocytes to produce tissue-type plasminogen activator. Blood. 1989;74(4):1222–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kobza Black A, Greaves MW, Hensby CN. The effect of systemic prednisolone on arachidonic acid, and prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha levels in human cutaneous inflammation. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982;14(3):391–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gerasimov AM, Toporova SM, Furtseva LN, Berezhnoy AP, Vilensky EV, Alekseeva RI. The role of lysosomes in the pathogenesis of unicameral bone cysts. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1991;266:53–63.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Komiya S, Inoue A. Development of a solitary bone cyst—a report of a case suggesting its pathogenesis. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2000;120(7–8):455–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Komiya S, Tsuzuki K, Mangham DC, Sugiyama M, Inoue A. Oxygen scavengers in simple bone cysts. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1994;308:199–206.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Neer CS 2nd, Francis KC, Marcove RC, Terz J, Carbonara PN. Treatment of unicameral bone cyst. A follow-up study of one hundred seventy-five cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1966;48(4):731–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wright JG. A randomized clinical trial comparing intralesional bone marrow and steroid injections for simple bone cysts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(4):722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ahn JI, Park JS. Pathological fractures secondary to unicameral bone cysts. Int Orthop. 1994;18(1):20–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Galasko CS. Letter: the fate of simple bone cysts which fracture. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1974;101:302–4.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Garceau GJ, Gregory CF. Solitary unicameral bone cyst. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1954;36(A:2):267–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Neer CS, Francis KC, Johnston AD, Kiernan HA. Current concepts on the treatment of solitary unicameral bone cyst. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1973;97:40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaelin AJ, MacEwen GD. Unicameral bone cysts. Natural history and the risk of fracture. Int Orthop. 1989;13(4):275–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Abdel-Wanis ME, Tsuchiya H. Simple bone cyst is not a single entity: point of view based on a literature review. Med Hypotheses. 2002;58(1):87–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Vasconcellos DA, Yandow SM, Grace AM, Moritz BM, Marley LD, Fillman RR. Cyst index: a nonpredictor of simple bone cyst fracture. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007;27(3):307–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leong NL, Anderson ME, Gebhardt MC, Snyder BD. Computed tomography-based structural analysis for predicting fracture risk in children with benign skeletal neoplasms: comparison of specificity with that of plain radiographs. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92(9):1827–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cohen J. Unicameral bone cysts. a current synthesis of reported cases. Orthop Clin North Am. 1977;8(4):715–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haims AH, Desai P, Present D, Beltran J. Epiphyseal extension of a unicameral bone cyst. Skelet Radiol. 1997;26(1):51–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hashemi-Nejad A, Cole WG. Incomplete healing of simple bone cysts after steroid injections. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997;79(5):727–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stanton RP, Abdel-Mota'al MM. Growth arrest resulting from unicameral bone cyst. J Pediatr Orthop. 1998;18(2):198–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tey IK, Mahadev A, Lim KB, Lee EH, Nathan SS. Active unicameral bone cysts in the upper limb are at greater risk of fracture. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2009;17(2):157–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Violas P, Salmeron F, Chapuis M, Sales de Gauzy J, Bracq H, Cahuzac JP. Simple bone cysts of the proximal humerus complicated with growth arrest. Acta Orthop Belg. 2004;70(2):166–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cho HS, Seo SH, Park SH, Park JH, Shin DS, Park IH. Minimal invasive surgery for unicameral bone cyst using demineralized bone matrix: a case series. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:134.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lokiec F, Ezra E, Khermosh O, Wientroub S. Simple bone cysts treated by percutaneous autologous marrow grafting. A preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996;78(6):934–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lokiec F, Wientroub S. Simple bone cyst: etiology, classification, pathology, and treatment modalities. J Pediatr Orthop B. 1998;7(4):262–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chew FS, Bui-Mansfield LT, MJ K. Musculoskeletal imaging. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2003.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reynolds J. The "fallen fragment sign" in the diagnosis of unicameral bone cysts. Radiology. 1969;92(5):949–53.. passimPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Alyas F, Tirabosco R, Cannon S, Saifuddin A. Fallen fragment sign in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Clin Radiol. 2008;63(1):92–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maas EJ, Craig JG, Swisher PK, Amin MB, Marcus N. Fluid-fluid levels in a simple bone cyst on magnetic resonance imaging. Australas Radiol. 1998;42(3):267–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Margau R, Babyn P, Cole W, Smith C, Lee F. MR imaging of simple bone cysts in children: not so simple. Pediatr Radiol. 2000;30(8):551–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sullivan RJ, Meyer JS, Dormans JP, Davidson RS. Diagnosing aneurysmal and unicameral bone cysts with magnetic resonance imaging. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999;366:186–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhao JG, Ding N, Huang WJ, Wang J, Shang J, Zhang P. Interventions for treating simple bone cysts in the long bones of children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;9:CD010847.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Scaglietti O, Marchetti PG, Bartolozzi P. The effects of methylprednisolone acetate in the treatment of bone cysts. Results of three years follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1979;61-B(2):200–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Scaglietti O, Marchetti PG, Bartolozzi P. Final results obtained in the treatment of bone cysts with methylprednisolone acetate (depo-medrol) and a discussion of results achieved in other bone lesions. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982;165:33–42.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Campanacci M, Capanna R, Picci P. Unicameral and aneurysmal bone cysts. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986;204:25–36.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Campanacci M, De Sessa L, Trentani C. Scaglietti's method for conservative treatment of simple bone cysts with local injections of methylprednisolone acetate. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1977;3(1):27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Capanna R, Campanacci DA, Manfrini M. Unicameral and aneurysmal bone cysts. Orthop Clin North Am. 1996;27(3):605–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Capanna R, Monte AD, Gitelis S, Campanacci M. The natural history of unicameral bone cyst after steroid injection. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982;166:204–11.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Capanna R, Albisinni U, Caroli GC, Campanacci M. Contrast examination as a prognostic factor in the treatment of solitary bone cyst by cortisone injection. Skelet Radiol. 1984;12(2):97–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Carrata A, Garbagna P, Mapelli S, Zucchi V. The treatment of simple bone cysts by topical infiltrations of methylprednisolone acetate: technique and results. Eur J Radiol. 1983;3(1):3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fernbach SK, Blumenthal DH, Poznanski AK, Dias LS, Tachdjian MO. Radiographic changes in unicameral bone cysts following direct injection of steroids: a report on 14 cases. Radiology. 1981;140(3):689–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Goel AR, Kriger J, Bronfman R, Lauf E. Unicameral bone cysts: treatment with methylprednisone acetate injections. J Foot Ankle Surg. 1994;33(1):6–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pavone V, Caff G, Di Silvestri C, Avondo S, Sessa G. Steroid injections in the treatment of humeral unicameral bone cysts: long-term follow-up and review of the literature. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2013;24(4):497–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Thawrani D, Thai CC, Welch RD, Copley L, Johnston CE. Successful treatment of unicameral bone cyst by single percutaneous injection of α-BSM. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009;29(5):511–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Arazi M, Senaran H, Memik R, Kapicioglu S. Minimally invasive treatment of simple bone cysts with percutaneous autogenous bone marrow injection. Orthopedics. 2005;28(2):108–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kose N, Gokturk E, Turgut A, Gunal I, Seber S. Percutaneous autologous bone marrow grafting for simple bone cysts. Bull Hosp Jt Dis. 1999;58(2):105–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yandow SM, Lundeen GA, Scott SM, Coffin C. Autogenic bone marrow injections as a treatment for simple bone cyst. J Pediatr Orthop. 1998;18(5):616–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Delloye C, Docquier PL, Cornu O, Poilvache P, Peters M, Woitrin B, Rombouts JJ, De Nayer P. Simple bone cysts treated with aspiration and a single bone marrow injection. Int Orthop. 1998;22(2):134–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Chang CH, Stanton RP, Glutting J. Unicameral bone cysts treated by injection of bone marrow or methylprednisolone. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84(3):407–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wright JG, Yandow S, Donaldson S, Marley L. A randomized clinical trial comparing intralesional bone marrow and steroid injections for simple bone cysts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90(4):722–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kadhim M, Thacker M, Kadhim A, Holmes L. Treatment of unicameral bone cyst: systematic review and meta analysis. J Child Orthop. 2014;8(2):171–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shinozaki T, Arita S, Watanabe H, Chigira M. Simple bone cysts treated by multiple drill-holes. 23 cysts followed 2-10 years. Acta Orthop Scand. 1996;67(3):288–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chigira M, Watanabe H, Arita S, Udagawa E. Simple bone cyst--pathophysiology and treatment. Nihon Seikeigeka Gakkai Zasshi. 1983b;57(8):759–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Chuo CY, Fu YC, Chien SH, Lin GT, Wang GJ. Management strategy for unicameral bone cyst. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2003;19(6):289–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Santori F, Ghera S, Castelli V. Treatment of solitary bone cysts with intramedullary nailing. Orthopedics. 1988;11(6):873–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tsuchiya H, Abdel-Wanis ME, Uehara K, Tomita K, Takagi Y, Yasutake H. Cannulation of simple bone cysts. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2002;84(2):245–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McKay DW, Nason SS. Treatment of unicameral bone cysts by subtotal resection without grafts. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977;59(4):515–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chaves D. Treatment of solitary cysts of the humerus. Treated by diaphyseal resection and bone grafting. Int Orthop. 1980;3(4):253–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sturz H, Zenker H, Buckl H. Total subperiosteal resection treatment of solitary bone cysts of the humerus. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1979;93(3):231–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Donaldson S, Wright JG. Recent developments in treatment for simple bone cysts. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2011;23(1):73–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bonnel F, Canovas F, Faure P. Treatment of a simple bone cyst of the calcaneus by endoscopic curettage with cancellous bone injection. Acta Orthop Belg. 1999;65(4):528–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Otsuka T, Kobayashi M, Sekiya I, Yonezawa M, Kamiyama F, Matsushita Y, Matsui N. A new treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst by endoscopic curettage without bone grafting. Arthroscopy. 2001;17(7):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Yildirim C, Akmaz I, Sahin O, Keklikci K. Simple calcaneal bone cysts: a pilot study comparing open versus endoscopic curettage and grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2011;93(12):1626–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Yıldırım C, Mahiroğulları M, Kuşkucu M, Akmaz İ, Keklikci K. Treatment of a unicameral bone cyst of calcaneus with endoscopic curettage and percutaneous filling with corticocancellous allograft. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2009;49(1):93–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jaffe HL. Solitary unicameral bone cyst. Arch Surg. 1942;44(6):1004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mascard E, Gomez-Brouchet A, Lambot K. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2015;101(1 Suppl):S119–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Guseva NV, Jaber O, Tanas MR, Stence AA, Sompallae R, Schade J, Fillman AN, Miller BJ, Bossler AD, Ma D. Anchored multiplex PCR for targeted next-generation sequencing reveals recurrent and novelUSP6fusions and upregulation ofUSP6expression in aneurysmal bone cyst. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016;56(4):266–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lau AW, Pringle LM, Quick L, Riquelme DN, Ye Y, Oliveira AM, Chou MM. TRE17/Ubiquitin-specific protease 6 (USP6) oncogene translocated in aneurysmal bone cyst blocks osteoblastic maturation via an autocrine mechanism involving bone morphogenetic protein dysregulation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(47):37111–20.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Leithner A, Lang S, Windhager R, Leithner K, Karlic H, Kotz R, Haas OA. Expression of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in aneurysmal bone cyst. Mod Pathol. 2001;14(11):1100–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Oliveira AM, Hsi BL, Weremowicz S, Rosenberg AE, Dal Cin P, Joseph N, Bridge JA, Perez-Atayde AR, Fletcher JA. USP6 (Tre2) fusion oncogenes in aneurysmal bone cyst. Cancer Res. 2004;64(6):1920–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Panoutsakopoulos G, Pandis N, Kyriazoglou I, Gustafson P, Mertens F, Mandahl N. Recurrent t(16;17)(q22;p13) in aneurysmal bone cysts. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 1999;26(3):265–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Toescu SM, Alalade AF, Steele L, Bhargava D, Hunter R. Frontal skull osteoblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst-like changes associated with trauma during pregnancy: a case report. Acta Neurochir. 2017;159(2):393–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kransdorf MJ, Sweet DE. Aneurysmal bone cyst: concept, controversy, clinical presentation, and imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995;164(3):573–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nielsen GP, Fletcher JA, Oliveira AM. Aneurysmal bone cyst. In: Fletcher BJA, Hogendoorn PCW, Mertens F, editors. WHO classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone. Lyon: Elsevier Science; 2013. p. 348–9.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gardner ROE, Summers GR, Hopyan S. Chpater 12: Tumours. postgraduate pediatric orthopaedics: the candidate's guide to the FRCS (Tr and Orth) examination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Campanacci M. Aneurysmal bone cyst. Padova: Piccin; 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Cottalorda J, Bourelle S. Modern concepts of primary aneurysmal bone cyst. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2006;127(2):105–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cottalorda J, Kohler R, Sales de Gauzy J, Chotel F, Mazda K, Lefort G, Louahem D, Bourelle S, Dimeglio A. Epidemiology of aneurysmal bone cyst in children: a multicenter study and literature review. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2004;13(6):389–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Murphey MD, wan Jaovisidha S, Temple HT, Gannon FH, Jelinek JS, Malawer MM. Telangiectatic osteosarcoma: radiologic-pathologic comparison. Radiology. 2003;229(2):545–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Creager AJ, Madden CR, Bergman S, Geisinger KR. Aneurysmal bone cyst: fine-needle aspiration findings in 23 patients with clinical and radiologic correlation. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;128(5):740–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Layfield LJ, Armstrong K, Zaleski S, Eckardt J. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of clinically primary bone lesions. Diagn Cytopathol. 1993;9(2):168–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Rapp TB, Ward JP, Alaia MJ. Aneurysmal bone cyst. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2012;20(4):233–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Biesecker JL, Marcove RC, Huvos AG, Mike V. Aneurysmal bone cysts. A clinicopathologic study of 66 cases. Cancer. 1970;26(3):615–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dormans JP, Hanna BG, Johnston DR, Khurana JS. Surgical treatment and recurrence rate of aneurysmal bone cysts in children. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004;421:205–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Gibbs CP Jr, Hefele MC, Peabody TD, Montag AG, Aithal V, Simon MA. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the extremities. Factors related to local recurrence after curettage with a high-speed burr. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81(12):1671–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Nakatsuka A, Yamakado K, Maeda M, Yasuda M, Akeboshi M, Takaki H, Hamada A, Takeda K. Radiofrequency ablation combined with bone cement injection for the treatment of bone malignancies. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004;15(7):707–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wallace MT, Henshaw RM. Results of cement versus bone graft reconstruction after intralesional curettage of bone tumors in the skeletally immature patient. J Pediatr Orthop. 2014;34(1):92–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mankin HJ, Hornicek FJ, Ortiz-Cruz E, Villafuerte J, Gebhardt MC. Aneurysmal bone cyst: a review of 150 patients. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(27):6756–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ozaki T, Hillmann A, Lindner N, Winkelmann W. Cementation of primary aneurysmal bone cysts. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997;337:240–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Herold N, Houshian S, Riegels-Nielsen P. A prospective comparison of wedge matrix resection with nail matrix phenolization for the treatment of ingrown toenail. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2001;40(6):390–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Misiak P, Terlecki A, Rzepkowska-Misiak B, Wcislo S, Brocki M. Comparison of effectiveness of electrocautery and phenol application in partial matricectomy after partial nail extraction in the treatment of ingrown nails. Pol Przegl Chir. 2014;86(2):89–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zaraa I, Dorbani I, Hawilo A, Mokni M, Ben Osman A. Segmental phenolization for the treatment of ingrown toenails: technique report, follow up of 146 patients, and review of the literature. Dermatol Online J. 2013;19(6):18560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Capanna R, Sudanese A, Baldini N, Campanacci M. Phenol as an adjuvant in the control of local recurrence of benign neoplasms of bone treated by curettage. Ital J Orthop Traumatol. 1985;11(3):381–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bitzan P, Windhager R, Lang S, Richling B, Kotz R. Incidence of recurrence of aneurysmal bone cysts following surgical treatment and adjuvant therapy with phenol. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb. 1995;133(5):422–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kececi B, Kucuk L, Isayev A, Sabah D. Effect of adjuvant therapies on recurrence in aneurysmal bone cysts. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2014;48(5):500–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Marcove RC, Sheth DS, Takemoto S, Healey JH. The treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1995;311:157–63.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Marcove RC, Weis LD, Vaghaiwalla MR, Pearson R, Huvos AG. Cryosurgery in the treatment of giant cell tumors of bone. A report of 52 consecutive cases. Cancer. 1978;41(3):957–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Peeters SP, Van der Geest IC, de Rooy JW, Veth RP, Schreuder HW. Aneurysmal bone cyst: the role of cryosurgery as local adjuvant treatment. J Surg Oncol. 2009;100(8):719–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Schreuder HW, Veth RP, Pruszczynski M, Lemmens JA, Koops HS, Molenaar WM. Aneurysmal bone cysts treated by curettage, cryotherapy and bone grafting. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997;79(1):20–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ben-Soussan E, Antonietti M, Savoye G, Herve S, Ducrotte P, Lerebours E. Argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis is efficient but requires a perfect colonic cleansing to be safe. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004;16(12):1315–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cummings JE, Smith RA, Heck RK Jr. Argon beam coagulation as adjuvant treatment after curettage of aneurysmal bone cysts: a preliminary study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2010;468(1):231–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Steffner RJ, Liao C, Stacy G, Atanda A, Attar S, Avedian R, Peabody TD. Factors associated with recurrence of primary aneurysmal bone cysts: is argon beam coagulation an effective adjuvant treatment? J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011;93(21):e1221–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rossi G, Rimondi E, Bartalena T, Gerardi A, Alberghini M, Staals EL, Errani C, Bianchi G, Toscano A, Mercuri M, Vanel D. Selective arterial embolization of 36 aneurysmal bone cysts of the skeleton with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. Skelet Radiol. 2010;39(2):161–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Flont P, Kolacinska-Flont M, Niedzielski K. A comparison of cyst wall curettage and en bloc excision in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts. World J Surg Oncol. 2013;11(1):109.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Papagelopoulos PJ, Currier BL, Shaughnessy WJ, Sim FH, Ebersold MJ, Bond JR, Unni KK. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1998;23(5):621–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Reddy KI, Sinnaeve F, Gaston CL, Grimer RJ, Carter SR. Aneurysmal bone cysts: do simple treatments work? Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2014;472(6):1901–10.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Cakir Y, Hahn KA. Direct action by doxycycline against canine osteosarcoma cell proliferation and collagenase (MMP-1) activity in vitro. In Vivo. 1999;13(4):327–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Duivenvoorden WC, Hirte HW, Singh G. Use of tetracycline as an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase activity secreted by human bone-metastasizing cancer cells. Invasion Metastasis. 1997;17(6):312–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Fife RS, Rougraff BT, Proctor C, Sledge GW Jr. Inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis by doxycycline in cultured human osteosarcoma cells. J Lab Clin Med. 1997;130(5):530–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Onoda T, Ono T, Dhar DK, Yamanoi A, Fujii T, Nagasue N. Doxycycline inhibits cell proliferation and invasive potential: combination therapy with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor in human colorectal cancer cells. J Lab Clin Med. 2004;143(4):207–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Shiels WE, Beebe AC, Mayerson JL. Percutaneous doxycycline treatment of juxtaphyseal aneurysmal bone cysts. J Pediatr Orthop. 2016;36(2):205–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Shiels WE, Mayerson JL. Percutaneous doxycycline treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts with low recurrence rate: a preliminary report. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013;471(8):2675–83.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Drake MT, Clarke BL, Khosla S. Bisphosphonates: mechanism of action and role in clinical practice. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83(9):1032–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Morgan G, Lipton A. Antitumor effects and anticancer applications of bisphosphonates. Semin Oncol. 2010;37(Suppl 2):S30–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cornelis F, Truchetet ME, Amoretti N, Verdier D, Fournier C, Pillet O, Gille O, Hauger O. Bisphosphonate therapy for unresectable symptomatic benign bone tumors: a long-term prospective study of tolerance and efficacy. Bone. 2014;58:11–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Yamagishi T, Kawashima H, Ogose A, Ariizumi T, Sasaki T, Hatano H, Hotta T, Endo N. Receptor-activator of nuclear KappaB ligand expression as a new therapeutic target in primary bone tumors. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0154680.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Dubory A, Missenard G, Domont J, Court C. Interest of denosumab for the treatment of giant-cells tumors and aneurysmal bone cysts of the spine. About nine cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2016;41(11):E654–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Pelle DW, Ringler JW, Peacock JD, Kampfschulte K, Scholten DJ 2nd, Davis MM, Mitchell DS, Steensma MR. Targeting receptor-activator of nuclear kappaB ligand in aneurysmal bone cysts: verification of target and therapeutic response. Transl Res. 2014;164(2):139–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Skubitz KM, Peltola JC, Santos ER, Cheng EY. Response of aneurysmal bone cyst to denosumab. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015;40(22):E1201–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric and Orthopaedic SurgeonLeeds Children HospitalLeedsUK
  2. 2.Clinical Director of Paediatric Trauma and Orthopaedic SurgeryRoyal Manchester Children Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation TrustManchesterUK
  3. 3.Orthopaedic Surgery, Botnar Research CentreUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations