Advertisement

Policy Effects on Mental Health Status and Mental Health Care Disparities

  • Jeanne Miranda
  • Lonnie R. Snowden
  • Rupinder K. Legha
Chapter

Abstract

Policies that are directed at increasing access to mental health care for ethnic minority communities are needed. However, our review suggests that insurance alone is unlikely to result in substantial decreases in mental healthcare disparities for ethnic minority communities. We also consider disparities affecting sexual and gender minority populations, undocumented individuals, and African Americans and Latinos who are unjustly incarcerated. Comprehensive programs, such as collaborative care within health care settings, are needed to decrease these disparities. We propose that quality of care for healthcare organizations should include measures of disparities so that eliminating disparities would be considered an indicator of high-quality care. Mental health policy advocates should not only support policies that increase access to quality care for minorities, but also support anti-discrimination policies that are likely to have a major impact on the mental health status and mental healthcare use of minority populations.

References

  1. 1.
    McGuire, T. G., & Miranda, J. (2008). New evidence regarding racial and ethnic disparities in mental health: Policy implications. Health Affairs, 27(2), 393–403.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.27.2.393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nelson, A. R., Stith, A. Y., & Smedley, B. D. (2002). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). The Secretary’s Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2020. Phase I Report: Recommendations for the framework and format of Healthy People 2020. Section IV. Advisory Committee findings and recommendations.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Safran, M. A., Mays, R. A., Jr., Huang, L. N., McCuan, R., Pham, P. K., Fisher, S. K., … Trachtenberg, A. (2009). Mental health disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 99(11), 1962–1966.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Heckler, M. M. (1985). Report of the secretary’s task force report on black and minority health volume I: Executive summary (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Trans.). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    National Center for Health Statistics. (2012). Healthy People 2010 Final Review. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Warnecke, R. B., Oh, A., Breen, N., Gehlert, S., Paskett, E., Tucker, K. L., … Flack, J. (2008). Approaching health disparities from a population perspective: The National Institutes of Health Centers for population health and health disparities. American Journal of Public Health, 98(9), 1608–1615.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Office of the Surgeon General, Center for Mental Health Services, & National Institute of Mental Health. (2001). Mental health: Culture, race, and ethnicity—A supplement to mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Publications and Reports of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Graham, R., Berkowitz, B., Blum, R., Bockting, W., Bradford, J., de Vries, B., … Kasprzyk, D. (2011). The health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people: Building a foundation for better understanding. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    The National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine. (2018). Statement on harmful consequences of separating families at the U.S. border. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 617–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neighbors, H. W., Trierweiler, S. J., Ford, B. C., & Muroff, J. R. (2003). Racial differences in DSM diagnosis using a semi-structured instrument: The importance of clinical judgment in the diagnosis of African Americans. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(3), 237–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental health findings (NSDUH Series H-47). Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vega, W. A., Kolody, B., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alderete, E., Catalano, R., & Caraveo-Anduaga, J. (1998). Lifetime prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders among urban and rural Mexican Americans in California. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(9), 771–778.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.55.9.771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alegría, M., Canino, G., Shrout, P. E., Woo, M., Duan, N., Vila, D., … Meng, X.-L. (2008). Prevalence of mental illness in immigrant and non-immigrant U.S. Latino groups. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(3), 359–369.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07040704.
  16. 16.
    Alegría, M., Mulvaney-Day, N., Woo, M., Torres, M., Gao, S., & Oddo, V. (2007). Correlates of past-year mental health service use among Latinos: Results from the National Latino and Asian American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 76–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Takeuchi, D. T., Zane, N., Hong, S., Chae, D. H., Gong, F., Gee, G. C., … Alegría, M. (2007). Immigration-related factors and mental disorders among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 84–90.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Williams, D. R., Haile, R., González, H. M., Neighbors, H., Baser, R., & Jackson, J. S. (2007). The mental health of Black Caribbean immigrants: Results from the National Survey of American Life. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 52–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Beals, J., Manson, S. M., Whitesell, N. R., Spicer, P., Novins, D. K., & Mitchell, C. M. (2005). Prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and attendant help-seeking in 2 American Indian reservation populations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(1), 99–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pascoe, E. A., & Smart Richman, L. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135(4), 531–554.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0016059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cook, B. L., Trinh, N.-H., Li, Z., Hou, S. S.-Y., & Progovac, A. M. (2017). Trends in racial-ethnic disparities in access to mental health care, 2004–2012. Psychiatric Services, 68(1), 9–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sareen, J., Jagdeo, A., Cox, B. J., Clara, I., ten Have, M., Belik, S.-L., … Stein, M. B. (2007). Perceived barriers to mental health service utilization in the United States, Ontario, and the Netherlands. Psychiatric Services, 58(3), 357–364.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.58.3.357.
  23. 23.
    Hayes, S. L., Riley, P., Radley, D. C., & McCarthy, D. (2017). Reducing racial and ethnic disparities in access to care: Has the Affordable Care Act made a difference? Issue Brief (Commonwealth Fund), 2017, 1–14.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alegría, M., Canino, G., Ríos, R., Vera, M., Calderón, J., Rusch, D., & Ortega, A. (2002). Inequalities in use of specialty mental health services among Latinos, African Americans, and non-Latino whites. Psychiatric Services, 53(12), 1547–1555.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jackson, J. S., Neighbors, H. W., Torres, M., Martin, L. A., Williams, D. R., & Baser, R. (2007). Use of mental health services and subjective satisfaction with treatment among Black Caribbean immigrants: Results from the National Survey of American Life. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 60–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Alegría, M., Cao, Z., McGuire, T. G., Ojeda, V. D., Sribney, B., Woo, M., & Takeuchi, D. (2006). Health insurance coverage for vulnerable populations: Contrasting Asian Americans and Latinos in the United States. INQUIRY: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing, 43(3), 231–254.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lindrooth, R. C., Lo Sasso, A. T., & Lurie, I. Z. (2006). The effect of distance to provider on employee response to changes in mental health benefits. Health Economics, 15(10), 1133–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McCarthy, J. F., Blow, F. C., Valenstein, M., Fischer, E. P., Owen, R. R., Barry, K. L., … Ignacio, R. V. (2007). Veterans Affairs Health System and mental health treatment retention among patients with serious mental illness: Evaluating accessibility and availability barriers. Health Services Research, 42(3p1), 1042–1060.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dinwiddie, G. Y., Gaskin, D. J., Chan, K. S., Norrington, J., & McCleary, R. (2013). Residential segregation, geographic proximity and type of services used: Evidence for racial/ethnic disparities in mental health. Social Science and Medicine, 80, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bishop, T. F., Press, M. J., Keyhani, S., & Pincus, H. A. (2014). Acceptance of insurance by psychiatrists and the implications for access to mental health care. Journal American Medical Association Psychiatry, 71(2), 176–181.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.2862.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cochran, S. D., Björkenstam, C., & Mays, V. M. (2017). Sexual orientation differences in functional limitations, disability, and mental health services use: Results from the 2013–2014 National Health Interview Survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 85(12), 1111–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kerridge, B. T., Pickering, R. P., Saha, T. D., Ruan, W. J., Chou, S. P., Zhang, H., … Hasin, D. S. (2017). Prevalence, sociodemographic correlates and DSM-5 substance use disorders and other psychiatric disorders among sexual minorities in the United States. Drug and alcohol dependence, 170, 82–92.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C. J., Hughes, T. L., & McCabe, S. E. (2010). Dimensions of sexual orientation and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 100(3), 468–475.  https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2008.152942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2009). Burden of psychiatric morbidity among lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in the California Quality of Life Survey. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(3), 647–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cochran, S. D., & Mays, V. M. (2000). Lifetime prevalence of suicide symptoms and affective disorders among men reporting same-sex sexual partners: Results from NHANES III. American Journal of Public Health, 90(4), 573–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gilman, S. E., Cochran, S. D., Mays, V. M., Hughes, M., Ostrow, D., & Kessler, R. C. (2001). Risk of psychiatric disorders among individuals reporting same-sex sexual partners in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Public Health, 91(6), 933–939.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.91.6.933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marshal, M. P., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., King, K. M., Miles, J., Gold, M. A., … Morse, J. Q. (2008). Sexual orientation and adolescent substance use: A meta-analysis and methodological review. Addiction, 103(4), 546–556.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Marshal, M. P., Dietz, L. J., Friedman, M. S., Stall, R., Smith, H. A., McGinley, J., … Brent, D. A. (2011). Suicidality and depression disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 49(2), 115–123.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bolton, S.-L., & Sareen, J. (2011). Sexual orientation and its relation to mental disorders and suicide attempts: Findings from a nationally representative sample. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(1), 35–43.  https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371105600107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Clements-Nolle, K., Marx, R., & Katz, M. (2006). Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization. Journal of Homosexuality, 51(3), 53–69.  https://doi.org/10.1300/J082v51n03_04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kann, L., Olsen, E. O. M., McManus, T., Harris, W. A., Shanklin, S. L., Flint, K. H., … Whittle, L. (2016). Sexual identity, sex of sexual contacts, and health-related behaviors among students in grades 9–12—United States and selected sites, 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Suveillance Summaries, 65(9), 1–202.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bostwick, W. B., Boyd, C. J., Hughes, T. L., West, B. T., & McCabe, S. E. (2014). Discrimination and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults in the United States. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(1), 35–45.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0098851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Walch, S. E., Ngamake, S. T., Bovornusvakool, W., & Walker, S. V. (2016). Discrimination, internalized homophobia, and concealment in sexual minority physical and mental health. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(1), 37–48.  https://doi.org/10.1037/sgd0000146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Platt, L. F., Wolf, J. K., & Scheitle, C. P. (2017). Patterns of mental health care utilization among sexual orientation minority groups. Journal of Homosexuality, 65(2), 135–153. Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Grella, C. E., Cochran, S. D., Greenwell, L., & Mays, V. M. (2011). Effects of sexual orientation and gender on perceived need for treatment by persons with and without mental disorders. Psychiatric Services, 62(4), 404–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hainmueller, J., Lawrence, D., Martén, L., Black, B., Figueroa, L., Hotard, M., … Swartz, J. J. (2017). Protecting unauthorized immigrant mothers improves their children’s mental health. Science, 357(6355), 1041–1044.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aan5893.
  47. 47.
    Garcini, L., Murray, K., Zhou, A., Klonoff, E., Myers, M., & Elder, J. (2016). Mental health of undocumented immigrant adults in the United States: A systematic review of methodology and findings. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 14(1), 1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15562948.2014.998849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lustig, S. L., Kia-Keating, M., Knight, W. G., Geltman, P., Ellis, H., Kinzie, J. D., … Saxe, G. N. (2004). Review of child and adolescent refugee mental health. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(1), 24–36.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200401000-00012.
  49. 49.
    Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. V. (2009). A portrait of unauthorized immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bernhardt, A., Milkman, R., Theodore, N., Heckathorn, D., Auer, M., DeFilippis, J., … Spille, M. (2009). Broken laws, unprotected workers: Violations of employment and labor laws in America’s cities: National Employment Law Project, Center for Urban Economic Development. UCLA Institute for Research on Labor and Employment.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hacker, K., Anies, M., Folb, B. L., & Zallman, L. (2015). Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: A literature review. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 8, 175–183.  https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S70173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Perez, M. C., & Fortuna, L. (2005). Chapter 6. Psychosocial stressors, psychiatric diagnoses and utilization of mental health services among undocumented immigrant Latinos. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Services, 3(1–2), 107–123.  https://doi.org/10.1300/j191v03n01_06.
  53. 53.
    Salas, L. M., Ayón, C., & Gurrola, M. (2013). Estamos traumados: The effect of anti-immigrant sentiment and policies on the mental health of Mexican immigrant families. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(8), 1005–1020.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Adashi, E. Y., Geiger, H. J., & Fine, M. D. (2010). Health care reform and primary care—The growing importance of the community health center. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(22), 2047–2050.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp1003729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Berk, M. L., & Schur, C. L. (2001). The effect of fear on access to care among undocumented Latino immigrants. Journal of Immigrant Health, 3(3), 151–156.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1011389105821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bauer, A. M., Chen, C.-N., & Alegría, M. (2010). English language proficiency and mental health service use among Latino and Asian Americans with mental disorders. Medical Care, 48(12), 1097–1104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Derr, A. S. (2015). Mental health service use among immigrants in the United States: A systematic review. Psychiatric Services, 67(3), 265–274.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201500004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ortega, A. N., Fang, H., Perez, V. H., Rizzo, J. A., Carter-Pokras, O., Wallace, S. P., & Gelberg, L. (2007). Health care access, use of services, and experiences among undocumented Mexicans and other Latinos. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(21), 2354–2360.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.167.21.2354.
  59. 59.
    Whitbeck, L. B., Adams, G. W., Hoyt, D. R., & Chen, X. (2004). Conceptualizing and measuring historical trauma among American Indian people. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(3–4), 119–130.  https://doi.org/10.1023/B:AJCP.0000027000.77357.31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Meyer, I. H. (2003). Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: Conceptual issues and research evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 129(5), 674–697.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.5.674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Redfield, S. E., & Nance, J. P. (2016). School-to-prison pipeline: Coalition on Racial and Ethnic Justice, Criminal Justice Section and Council for Racial & Ethnic Diversity in the Educational Pipeline. Chicago: American Bar Association.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Raifman, J., Moscoe, E., Austin, S. B., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., & Galea, S. (2018). Association of state laws permitting denial of services to same-sex couples with mental distress in sexual minority adults: A difference-in-difference-in-differences analysis. Journal American Medical Association Psychiatry, 75(7), 671–677.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.0757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bor, J., Venkataramani, A. S., Williams, D. R., & Tsai, A. C. (2018). Police killings and their spillover effects on the mental health of black Americans: A population-based, quasi-experimental study. The Lancet.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(18)31130-9.
  64. 64.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). National healthcare disparities report. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Weiss, A., Long, S. K., Ramos, C., & Coughlin, T. (2016). Federally Qualified Health Centers’ importance in the Safety Net Continues as Affordable Care Act implementation moves ahead. Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Miranda, J., Bernal, G., Lau, A., Kohn, L., Hwang, W.-C., & LaFromboise, T. (2005). State of the science on psychosocial interventions for ethnic minorities. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 113–142.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ratzliff, A. D., Ni, K., Chan, Y.-F., Park, M., & Unützer, J. (2013). A collaborative care approach to depression treatment for Asian Americans. Psychiatric Services, 64(5), 487–490.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.001742012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2017). Engagement: A new standard for mental health care. Arlington, VA.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kreyenbuhl, J., Nossel, I. R., & Dixon, L. B. (2009). Disengagement from mental health treatment among individuals with schizophrenia and strategies for facilitating connections to care: A review of the literature. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35(4), 696–703.  https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbp046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wang, P. S., Lane, M., Olfson, M., Pincus, H. A., Wells, K. B., & Kessler, R. C. (2005). Twelve-month use of mental health services in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 629–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Busch, A. B., Lehman, A. F., Goldman, H., & Frank, R. G. (2009). Changes over time and disparities in schizophrenia treatment quality. Medical Care, 47(2), 199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Virnig, B., Huang, Z., Lurie, N., Musgrave, D., McBean, A. M., & Dowd, B. (2004). Does Medicare managed care provide equal treatment for mental illness across races? Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(2), 201–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Warden, D., Trivedi, M. H., Wisniewski, S. R., Davis, L., Nierenberg, A. A., Gaynes, B. N., … Howland, R. (2007). Predictors of attrition during initial (citalopram) treatment for depression: A STAR* D report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164(8), 1189–1197.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Interian, A., Lewis-Fernández, R., & Dixon, L. B. (2013). Improving treatment engagement of underserved US racial-ethnic groups: A review of recent interventions. Psychiatric Services, 64(3), 212–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Miranda, J., Duan, N., Sherbourne, C., Schoenbaum, M., Lagomasino, I., Jackson-Triche, M., & Wells, K. B. (2003). Improving care for minorities: Can quality improvement interventions improve care and outcomes for depressed minorities? Results of a randomized, controlled trial. Health Services Research, 38(2), 613–630.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6773.00136.
  76. 76.
    Ngo, V. K., Asarnow, J. R., Lange, J., Jaycox, L. H., Rea, M. M., Landon, C., … Miranda, J. (2009). Outcomes for youths from racial-ethnic minority groups in a quality improvement intervention for depression treatment. Psychiatric Services, 60(10), 1357–1364.  https://doi.org/10.1176/ps.2009.60.10.1357.
  77. 77.
    Nuru-Jeter, A. M., Thorpe, R. J., Jr., & Fuller-Thomson, E. (2011). Black-white differences in self-reported disability outcomes in the US: Early childhood to older adulthood. Public Health Reports, 126(6), 834–843.  https://doi.org/10.1177/003335491112600609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Leigh, W. A., & Huff, D. (2007). African Americans and social security disability insurance (pp. 1–10). Washington, DC: Joint Centre for Political and economic Studies.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sartorius, N. (2018). Depression and diabetes. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 20(1), 47–52.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Carson, E. A., & Sabol, W. J. (2012). Prisoners in 2011 (T. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Trans., and J. Thomas, Ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Criminal Justice Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.naacp.org/criminal-justice-fact-sheet/. Accessed January 8, 2018.
  82. 82.
    Malliori, M., Golna, C., Souliotis, K., & Kraus, M. (2015). Mental health impact of the war on drugs. BJPsych international, 12(3), 53–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Thornton, J. (2002). Estimating a health production function for the US: Some new evidence. Applied Economics, 34(1), 59–62.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840010025650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Alegria, M., Perez, D. J., & Williams, S. (2003). The role of public policies in reducing mental health status disparities for people of color. Health Affairs, 22(5), 51–64.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.22.5.51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    D’Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., Salter, N. P., Vasey, J. J., Starks, M. T., & Sinclair, K. O. (2005). Predicting the suicide attempts of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 35(6), 646–660.  https://doi.org/10.1521/suli.2005.35.6.646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Choi, S. K., Wilson, B. D., Shelton, J., & Gates, G. J. (2015). Serving our youth 2015: The needs and experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth experiencing homelessness. Los Angeles, CA: The Williams Institute with True Colors Fund.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wilson, B. D., Cooper, K., Kastanis, A., & Nezhad, S. (2014). Sexual and gender minority youth in foster care: Assessing disproportionality and disparities in Los Angeles. Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Irvine, A., & Canfield, A. (2016). The overrepresentation of lesbian, gay, bisexual, questioning, gender nonconforming and transgender youth within the child welfare to juvenile justice crossover population. American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law, 24(2), 243–261.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wilson, B. D., Jordan, S. P., Meyer, I. H., Flores, A. R., Stemple, L., & Herman, J. L. (2017). Disproportionality and disparities among sexual minority youth in custody. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(7), 1547–1561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Center for American Progress & Movement Advancement Project. (2016). Unjust: How the broken criminal justice system fails LGBTQ youth. Washington, DC and Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hunt, J., & Moodie-Mills, A. C. (2012). The unfair criminalization of gay and transgender youth: An overview of the experiences of LGBT youth in the juvenile justice system (Vol. 29). Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hardy, L. J., Getrich, C. M., Quezada, J. C., Guay, A., Michalowski, R. J., & Henley, E. (2012). A call for further research on the impact of state-level immigration policies on public health. American Journal of Public Health, 102(7), 1250–1253.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Toomey, R. B., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Williams, D. R., Harvey-Mendoza, E., Jahromi, L. B., & Updegraff, K. A. (2014). Impact of Arizona’s SB 1070 immigration law on utilization of health care and public assistance among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures. American Journal of Public Health, 104(S1), S28–S34.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2013.301655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Rhodes, S. D., Mann, L., Simán, F. M., Song, E., Alonzo, J., Downs, M., … O’brien, M. C. (2015). The impact of local immigration enforcement policies on the health of immigrant Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 105(2), 329–337.  https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302218.
  95. 95.
    U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. (2017, July 2; 2018). Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA): Population data as of September 4, 2017. Immigration and Citizenship Data. Retrieved from https://www.uscis.gov/tools/reports-studies/immigration-forms-data. Accessed August 8, 2018.
  96. 96.
    Venkataramani, A. S., Shah, S. J., O’Brien, R., Kawachi, I., & Tsai, A. C. (2017). Health consequences of the US Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) immigration programme: A quasi-experimental study. The Lancet Public Health, 2(4), e175–e181.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s2468-2667(17)30047-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sudhinaraset, M., To, T. M., Ling, I., Melo, J., & Chavarin, J. (2017). The influence of deferred action for childhood arrivals on undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander young adults: Through a social determinants of health lens. Journal of Adolescent Health, 60(6), 741–746.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gaffney, A., & McCormick, D. (2017). The Affordable Care Act: Implications for health-care equity. The Lancet, 389(10077), 1442–1452.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30786-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Ali, M. M., Teich, J., Woodward, A., & Han, B. (2016). The implications of the Affordable Care Act for behavioral health services utilization. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 43(1), 11–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Garfield, R., Licata, R., & Young, K. (2014). The uninsured at the starting line: Findings from the 2013 Kaiser survey of low-income Americans and the ACA.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Sohn, H. (2017). Racial and ethnic disparities in health insurance coverage: Dynamics of gaining and losing coverage over the life-course. Population Research and Policy Review, 36(2), 181–201.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-016-9416-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Artiga, S., Ubri, P., Foutz, J., & Damico, A. (2016). Health coverage by race and ethnicity: Examining changes under the ACA and the remaining uninsured. Menlo Park, CA: The Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Cohen, R. A., Martinez, M. E., & Zammitti, E. P. (2018). Health insurance coverage: Early release of estimates from the National Health Interview Survey, January–March 2018. National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Garfield, R., Damico, A., & Orgera, K. (2018). The coverage gap: Uninsured poor adults in states that do not expand Medicaid. Menlo Park, CA.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Zuckerman, S., Waidmann, T. A., & Lawton, E. (2011). Undocumented immigrants, left out of health reform, likely to continue to grow as share of the uninsured. Health Affairs, 30(10), 1997–2004.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    DeNavas-Walt, C., Proctor, B. D., & Smith, J. C. (2013). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2012. In U. S. C. Bureau (Ed.), Current Population Reports, P60-245. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Creedon, T. B., & Lê Cook, B. (2016). Access to mental health care increased but not for substance use, while disparities remain. Health Affairs, 35(6), 1017–1021.  https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2016.0098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Dawson, L., & Kates, J. (2018). The Affordable Care Act and insurance coverage changes by sexual orientation. Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/the-affordable-care-act-and-insurance-coverage-changes-by-sexual-orientation/. Accessed August 9, 2018.
  109. 109.
    Kates, J., Ranji, U., Beamesderfer, A., Salganicoff, A., & Dawson, L. (2018). Health and access to care and coverage for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals in the U.S. (Issue Brief). Retrieved from https://www.kff.org/disparities-policy/issue-brief/health-and-access-to-care-and-coverage-for-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-individuals-in-the-u-s/. Accessed August 9, 2018.
  110. 110.
    Health Resources & Services Administration. (2018). Medically Underserved Areas/Populations (MUA/P). Data Warehouse. Retrieved from https://datawarehouse.hrsa.gov/tools/DataPortalResults.aspx?paramServiceId=MUA&paramFilterId=D. Accessed January 9, 2018.
  111. 111.
    Human Resources & Services Administration. (2016). 2016 Health center data—Program grantee data (Full Report). Retrieved August 9, 2018.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    National Association of Community Health Centers. (2017). Community Health Center Chartbook. Retrieved from http://www.nachc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Chartbook2017.pdf. Accessed August 9, 2018.
  113. 113.
    Health Resources & Services Administration. (2018). Health Center Program Look-Alikes. Retrieved from https://bphc.hrsa.gov/programopportunities/lookalike/index.html. Accessed August 9, 2018.
  114. 114.
    Heisler, E. J. (2017). Federal health centers: An overview (pp. 1–38). Washington: DC.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Druss, B. G., Bornemann, T., Fry-Johnson, Y. W., McCombs, H. G., Politzer, R. M., & Rust, G. (2008). Trends in mental health and substance abuse services at the nation’s community health centers: 1998–2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(Suppl. 1), S126–S131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Udow-Phillips, M., Fangmeier, J., & Lawton, E. (2016). The effects of the Affordable Care Act on Federally Qualified Health Centers in Michigan. Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Goldstein, E. V. (2017). Integrating mental and physical health care for low-income Americans: Assessing a federal program’s initial impact on access and cost. Healthcare, 5(3), 32.  https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare5030032.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Wright, D. B., & Ricketts, T. C. (2013). When patients govern: Federal grant funding and uncompensated care at federally qualified health centers. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 24(2), 954–967.  https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2013.0068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Martos, A. J., Wilson, P. A., & Meyer, I. H. (2017). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health services in the United States: Origins, evolution, and contemporary landscape. PLoS One, 12(7), 1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Zong, J., & Batalova, J. (2015). The limited English proficient population in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/limited-english-proficient-population-united-states.
  121. 121.
    Sentell, T., Shumway, M., & Snowden, L. (2007). Access to mental health treatment by English language proficiency and race/ethnicity. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(2), 289–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Chen, A. H., Youdelman, M. K., & Brooks, J. (2007). The legal framework for language access in healthcare settings: Title VI and beyond. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(2), 362–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    McClellan, S. R., Wu, F. M., & Snowden, L. R. (2012). The impact of threshold language assistance programming on the accessibility of mental health services for persons with limited English proficiency in the Medi-Cal setting. Medical Care, 50(6), 554–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wallace, S. P., Torres, J., Sadegh-Nobari, T., Pourat, N., & Brown, E. R. (2012). Undocumented immigrants and health care reform: Final report to The Commonwealth Fund. UCLA Center for Health Policy Research.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Committee on the Changing Market, Managed Care, the Future Viability of Safety Net Providers, & Institute of Medicine. (2000). America’s health care safety net: Intact but endangered. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bessaha, M. L., Shumway, M., Smith, M. E., Bright, C. L., & Unick, G. J. (2017). Predictors of hospital length and cost of stay in a national sample of adult patients with psychotic disorders. Psychiatric Services, 68(6), 559–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Coughlin, T. A., Long, S. K., Peters, R., Rudowitz, R., & Garfield, R. (2015). Evolving picture of nine safety-net hospitals: Implications of the ACA and other strategies. Menlo Park, CA: Kaiser Family Foundation.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Network, California Pan-Ethnic Health. (2018). California reducing disparities project: Strategic plan to reduce mental health disparities. CA: Oakland.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Mutamba, B. B., van Ginneken, N., Paintain, L. S., Wandiembe, S., & Schellenberg, D. (2013). Roles and effectiveness of lay community health workers in the prevention of mental, neurological and substance use disorders in low and middle income countries: A systematic review. BioMed Central Health Services Research, 13, 412–423.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne Miranda
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lonnie R. Snowden
    • 3
  • Rupinder K. Legha
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Health Policy and Management Division, School of Public HealthUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations