The Standard and Counter-Rotating VAWT Performances with LES

  • Horia Dumitrescu
  • Alexandru DumitracheEmail author
  • Ion Malael
  • Radu Bogateanu
Part of the Springer Tracts in Mechanical Engineering book series (STME)


Traditionally, the wind turbine performance is defined in terms of power extraction performance (expressed non-dimensionally as power coefficient, CP, with its maximum value \( C_{{P_{B} }} = 16/27 \)) while the turbine ability to start is normally ignored. Nevertheless, if a turbine cannot accelerate through start-up, its power extraction performance is severely limited, especially at low wind speeds. The criterion of starting behavior at relatively low Reynolds numbers, appropriate for the urban application, therefore offers another expectation to improve the overall performance concerning the period that the turbine needs to start might be achieved which might lead to a significant increase in energy turn-out. The work will focus upon vertical-axis machines of Darrieus type using an H-rotor in which the blades are straight and parallel to their axis of rotation. For the small such turbines, i.e. in low Reynolds number flows, some researchers have stated that the Darrieus-type turbine is inherently not self-starting. The concept of a vertical-axis counter-rotating rotor is used to overcome the starting drawback of small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (hereafter VAWT). For this purpose, we attempt to simulate the flow around a Counter-Rotating VAWT (CR-VAWT) with Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and both starting behavior and power performance is outlined by comparing with an equivalent conventional turbine.


Wind turbine Counter-rotating VAWT Self-starting performance Renewable energy URANS LES 


  1. 1.
    Wright AK, Wood DH (2004) The starting and low speed behaviour of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 92:1265–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wood DH (2004) Dual purpose design of small wind turbines for optimal starting and power extraction. Wind Eng 23(1):15–21MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hill N, Dominy R, Ingram G, Dominy J (2009) Darrieus turbines: the physics of self-starting. Proc IMechE Part A J Power Energy 223:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dumitrescu H, Dumitrache A, Frunzulica F, Pal A, Turbatu V (2013) TORNADO concept and realisation of a rotor for small VAWTs. INCAS Bulletin 5(3):69–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dumitrescu H, Cardos V, Malael I (2015) The physics of starting process for vertical axis wind turbines. In: Ferrer E, Montlaur A (eds) CFD for wind and tidal offshore turbines, Chap 7. Springer Tracts in Mechanical Engineering, pp 69–81Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Menet J-L (2004) A double-step Savonius rotor for local production of electricity: a design study. Renew Energy 29:1843–1862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tjiua W, Marnotob T, Mata S, Ruslana MH, Sopiana K (2015) Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine for power generation II: challenges in HAWT and the opportunity of multi-megawatt Darrieus VAWT development. Renew Energy 75:560–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Menter FR, Esch T, Kubacki S (2002) Transition modelling based on local variables. In: 5th international symposium on turbulence modeling and measurements, SpainGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Franke J, Hellsten A, Sclunzen H, Carissimo B (2007) Best practice for the CFD simulation of flows in the urban environment: COST Action 732 quality assurance and improvement of microscale meteorological models: Meteorological Inst.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mălăel I, Drăgan V, Vizitiu G (2015) The vertical axis wind turbine efficiency evaluation by using the CFD methods. Appl Mech Mater 772:90–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Horia Dumitrescu
    • 1
  • Alexandru Dumitrache
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ion Malael
    • 2
  • Radu Bogateanu
    • 3
  1. 1.“Gh. Mihoc-C. Iacob” Institute of Mathematical Statistics and Applied MathematicsBucharestRomania
  2. 2.National Research and Development Institute for Gas TurbineBucharestRomania
  3. 3.INCAS – National Institute for Aerospace Research “Elie Carafoli”BucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations