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The Artificial Pancreas

  • Barry H. Ginsberg
  • Richard Mauseth
Chapter

Abstract

The artificial pancreas is an imprecise term that can mean a bioengineered product, such as an islet cell transplant, gene therapy to replace the pancreas, or the combination of a continuous glucose sensor, an insulin pump (with or without a glucagon pump), and a computer with an algorithm to control the delivery of insulin. In this chapter, we will consider only the last. This is an exciting topic with products being developed by an unusual consortium of academics, the JDRF, the NIH, the FDA, the Helmsley Foundation, and medical device companies. The first artificial pancreas was approved by the FDA in October of 2016 and was first marketed in June 2017 [1].

Keywords

Artificial pancreas Insulin pump Continuous glucose monitoring Proportional integrative derivative controllers Model predictive controllers Fuzzy logic controllers Cybersecurity 

Notes

Glossary

AP

Artificial pancreas

CGMS

Continuous glucose monitoring system

FDA

US Food and Drug Administration

HbA1c

Hemoglobin A11c

iOS

Apple operating system

MPC

Model predictive control. A controller algorithm

PID

Proportional integral derivative. A controller algorithm

Further Reading

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    Lunze K, Singh T, Walter M, Brendel M, Leonhardt S. Blood glucose control algorithms for type 1 diabetic patients: a methodological review. Biomed Signal Process Control.  https://doi.org/10.2016/j.bspc.2012.9.003. Accessed 12/30/2016.
  7. 7.
    Donnelly LA, Morris AD, Frier BM, Ellis JD, Donnan PT, Durrant R, Band MM, Reekie G, Leese P. Frequency and predictors of hypoglycaemia in type 1 and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Diabet Med. 2005;22:749–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    FDA. The Content of Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) and Premarket Approval (PMA) Applications for Artificial Pancreas Device Systems. 2012.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yuan S, Fernando A, Klonoff DC. Standards for Medical Device Cybersecurity in 2018.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1932296818763634. Accessed 25 April 2019.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry H. Ginsberg
    • 1
  • Richard Mauseth
    • 2
  1. 1.Diabetes Technology ConsultantsWyckoffUSA
  2. 2.Dose SafetySeattleUSA

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