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Tools of Self-Care: Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose and Tele-Health Resources

  • Barry H. Ginsberg
Chapter

Abstract

The therapy of diabetes was dramatically changed in the late twentieth century with the development of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Prior to the advent of this technology, the only glucose tool available to patients was to measure urine glucose. This provided only a poor estimate of blood glucose, often representing the value of several hours earlier, and it was unpopular with patients. Today, in the United States, all people with Type 1 diabetes and most with Type 2 diabetes do some SMBG. In this chapter, we will discuss the history, technology, and clinical usage of SMBG and their integration with computers and mobile devices in the emerging field of tele-health.

Keywords

Self-monitoring of blood glucose Urine monitoring Glucose meters Reactive strips Lancing devices Smart meters Glucose oxidase Glucose dehydrogenase Tele-health Blood glucose monitoring apps Food apps Insulin dose calculators 

Notes

Glossary

AST

Alternate site testing (sites other than the finger)

BGM

Blood glucose monitoring

Carb

Total amount of carbohydrate in meal

CIR

Carbohydrate to insulin ratio

DPP4

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4

FAD

Flavin adenine dinucleotide

FADH

Reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

Ga

Gauge

GDH_FAD

Glucose dehydrogenase with the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide

GDH-NAD

Glucose dehydrogenase with the cofactor nicotine adenine dinucleotide

GDH-PQQ

Glucose dehydrogenase with the cofactor pyrroloquinoline quinone

GLIP-1

Glucagon-like intestinal peptide-1

HbA1c

Hemoglobin A1c

IIT

Intensive insulin therapy, usually an insulin therapy with a long-acting insulin plus rapid-acting insulin at each meal, also called multiple daily insulin

IOB

Inulin on board. The amount of insulin remaining in the injection/infusion site

MARD

Median (or mean) absolute relative deviation

MDI

Multiple daily insulin therapy, see IIT

ISF

Insulin sensitivity factor

ISO

International Standards Organization

mM

Millimolar

SGLT 2

Sodium-glucose linked transporter. The proteins that reabsorb glucose from the renal tubule

SMBG

Self-monitoring of blood glucose, a process in which the patient checks their own blood glucose using a blood glucose monitor

Target

Desired blood glucose level

VSLI

Very large integrated circuit

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Further Reading

  1. History of BGM: American Chemical Society. Al and Helen Free and the development of diagnostic test strips. http://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/diagnosticteststrips.html. 8 April 2016. Accessed 1 Sept 2016.
  2. Mazze RS, Shamoon H, Pasmantier R, Lucido D, Murphy J, Hartmann K, Kuykendall V, Lopatin W. Reliability of blood glucose monitoring by patients with diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 1984;77(2):211–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. McCullough Dk. Patient education: self-blood glucose monitoring in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics). http://www.uptodate.com/contents/self-blood-glucose-monitoring-in-diabetes-mellitus-beyond-the-basics.
  4. Welschen LMC, Bloemendal E, Nijpels G, Dekker JM, Heine RJ, Stalman WAB, Bouter LM (for the Cochrane Group). Self-monitoring of blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are not using insulin (Review). The Cochrane Library. 2009;(1):1–30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry H. Ginsberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Diabetes Technology ConsultantsWyckoffUSA

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