Clinical Practice Guidelines, Evidence-Based Medicine, and Diabetes

  • Joel Rodriguez-Saldana


Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) are systematic statements designed to help physicians and patients in taking decisions about appropriate care for specific clinical circumstances. The goals of CPG include reducing the unjustified variation in medical practice, improve the quality of health care, and accelerate adoption of effective interventions. The design of diabetes guidelines has nurtured from the principles of evidence-based medicine and from the results of randomized clinical trials in the pursuit of improvement in clinical outcomes, with a shift from universal recommendations to all patients to a patient-centered approach. Recognition of the impact of unjustified variations of medical practice on clinical outcomes, health-care costs, and patient’s priorities is becoming increasingly relevant in the design of diabetes clinical guidelines. Strategies to reinforce implementation include audit, feedback, and reminders, but challenges of awareness, acceptance, and measurement are still formidable.


Clinical guidelines Type 2 diabetes Evidence-based medicine Patient-centered care Unwarranted variation AGREE II 


  1. 1.
    Glover JA. The incidence of tonsillectomy in school children. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:9–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brownlee S. From Pariah to Pioneer. Dartmouth Med. Fall, 2013:22–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brownlee S. Overtreated. Why too much medicine is making us sicker and poorer. Bloomsbury: New York; 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wennberg JE. Forty years of unwarranted variation – and still counting. Health Policy. 2014;114:1–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wennberg JE. Tracking medicine. A researcher’s quest to understand health care. New York: Oxford University Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wennberg J, Gittelsohn A. Small area variations in health care delivery: a population-based health information system can guide planning and regulatory decision making. Science. 1973;182:1102–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wennberg J, Gittelsohn A. Variations in medical care among small areas. Sci Am. 1982;246:120–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chassin MR, Brook RH, Park RE, Keesey J, Fink A, Kosecoff J, et al. Variations in the use of medical and surgical services by the Medicare population. N Engl J Med. 1986;314:285–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gittelsohn A, Powe NR. Small area variations in health care delivery in Maryland. Health Serv Res. 1995;30:295–317.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pasley B, Gibson G, McCauley M, Andoh J. Geographic variations in elderly hospital and surgical discharge rates, New York State. Am J Public Health. 1987;77:679–84.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mackenbach JP. Regional differences in the frequency of various common surgical procedures, 1985. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1990;134:953–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Welch WP, Miller ME, Welch HG, Fisher ES, Wennberg JE. Geographic variation in expenditures for physicians’ services in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:621–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Birkmeyer JD, Reames BN, McCulloch P, Carr AJ, Campbell WB, Wennberg JE. Understanding of regional variation in the use of surgery. Lancet. 2013;382:1121–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koval KJ, Lurie J, Zhou W, Sparks MB, Cantu RV, Sporer SM, Weinstein J. Ankle fractures in the elderly: what you get depends on where you live and who you see. J Orthop Trauma. 2005;19:635–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Detsky AS. Regional variation in medical care. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:589–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fuchs VR. More variation in use of care, more flat-of-the curve medicine. Health Aff. 2004;Suppl Variation:VAR104–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Eddy DM. Clinical policies and the quality of clinical practice. N Engl J Med. 1982;307:343–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brook RH. Practice guidelines and practicing medicine. Are they compatible? JAMA. 1989;262:3027–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    No authors listed. Guidelines for doctors in the new world. Lancet, 1992;339:1197–1198.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Onion CWR, Walley T. Clinical guidelines: development, implementation, and effectiveness. Postgrad Med J. 1995;71:3–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Manchikanti L. Evidence-based medicine, systematic reviews, and guidelines in interventional pain management, part I: introduction and general considerations. Pain Physician. 2008;11:161–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mullan F, Jacoby I. The town meeting for technology. The maturation of consensus conferences. JAMA. 1985;254:1068–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grant WR. Critical pathways in medicine. Proc Roy Soc Med. 1970;63:671–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pearson SD, Goulart-Fisher D, Lee TH. Critical pathways as a strategy for improving care: problems and potential. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123:941–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Greenfield S, Lewis CE, Kaplan SH. Peer review by criteria mapping: criteria for diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 1975;83:761–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Coffey RJ, Richards JS, Remmert CS, LeRoy SS, Schoville RR, Baldwin PJ. An introduction to critical paths. Qual Manag Health Care. 1992;1:45–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Field MJ, Lohr KN. Guidelines for clinical practice. From development to use. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Agency for Health Care Policy Research. Using clinical practice guidelines to evaluate quality of care. Rockville Maryland AHCPR Pub., No. 95–0045. 1995.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Margolis CZ. Clinical practice guidelines: methodological considerations. Int J Quality Health Care. 1997;9:303–6.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Huttin C. The use of clinical guidelines to improve medical practice: main issues in the United States. Int J Qual Health Care. 1997;9:207–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Eddy DM. Practice policies – what are they? JAMA. 1990;263:877–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eddy DM. Practice policies: where do they come from? JAMA. 1990;263:1265, 1269, 1272, 1275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eddy DM. Practice policies- guidelines for methods. JAMA. 1990;263:1839–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Eddy DM. Guidelines for policy statements: the explicit approach. JAMA. 1990;263:2239–40, 2243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eddy DM. Designing a practice policy. Standards, guidelines and options. JAMA. 1990;263:3077, 3081, 3084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eddy DM. Assessing health practices & designing practice policies. The explicit approach. American College of Physicians: Philadelphia PA; 1992. p. 1–126.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. Clinical guideline development. Rockville: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1990.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Woolf SH. Manual for clinical practice guideline development: a protocol for expert panels convened by the Office of the Forum for quality and effectiveness in health care. Rockville: DHHS, PHS, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) Center for Research Dissemination and Liaison; 1991.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Spernak SM, Budetti PP, Zweig F. Use of language in clinical practice guidelines. Rockville: Center for Health Policy Research; 1992.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Department of Veterans Affairs. Veterans Health Administration. Roles and definitions for clinical practice guidelines and clinical pathways. Washington, D.C.; 1996.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kirk JK, Michael KA, Markosky SJ, Restino MR, Zarowitz BJ. Critical pathways: the time is here for pharmacist involvement. Pharmacotherapy. 1996;16:723–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ritchie JL, Forrester JS, Fye WB. 28th Bethesda conference: practice guidelines and the quality of care. JACC. 1997;29:1125–79.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jackson R, Feder G. Guidelines for clinical guidelines. A simple, pragmatic survey for guideline development. BMJ. 1998;317:427–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Investigations JD. How to get from guidelines to protocols. Firstly, collect the right data. BMJ. 1991;303:323–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Woolf SH. Practice guidelines: a new reality in medicine. I Recent developments. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:1811–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Woolf SH. Practice guidelines, a new reality in medicine. II Methods of developing guidelines. Arch Intern Med. 1992;152:946–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Feder G. Which guidelines to follow? BMJ. 1994;308:470–1.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hadorn DC, Baker D, Hodges JS, Hicks N. Rating the quality of evidence for clinical practice guidelines. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49:749–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Guallar E, Laine C. Controversy over clinical guidelines: listen to the evidence, not the noise. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:361–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Woolf SH. Do clinical practice guidelines define good medical care? The need for good science and the disclosure of uncertainty when defining “best practices”. Chest. 1998;113:166S–71S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shekelle PG, Woolf SH, Eccles M, Grimshaw J. Developing guidelines. BMJ. 1999;318:593–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Every NR, Hochman J, Becker R, Kopecky S, Cannon CP. Critical pathways. A review. Circulation. 2000;101:461–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Berg AO, Atkins D, Tierney W. Clinical practice guidelines in practice and education. J Gen Int Med. 1997;12(suppl 2):S25–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sox HC, Sox CH, Tompkins RK. The training of physician’s assistants: the use of a clinical algorithm system for patient care, audit of performance and education. N Engl J Med. 1973;288:818–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sox HC. On standardization of clinical algorithms. Proposal for clinical algorithm standards. Med. Decis Making. 1992;12:149–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Weingarten S. Practice guidelines and prediction rules should be subject to careful clinical testing. JAMA. 1997;277:1977–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Berwick DM. Continuous improvement as an ideal in health care. N Engl J Med. 1989;320:53–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Heffner JE, Alberts M, Irwin R, Wunderink R. Translating guidelines into clinical practice. Recommendations to the American College of Chest Physicians. Chest. 2000;118:70S–3S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Eccles M, Mason J. Executive summary. How to develop cost-conscious guidelines. Health Technol Assess. 2001:5(16).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Haycox A, Bagust A, Walley T. Clinical guidelines-the hidden costs. BMJ. 1999;318:391–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Eccles MP, Grimshaw JM, Shekelle P, Schünemann J, Woolf S. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest. Implement Sci. 2012;7:60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Grimshaw JM, Russell IT. Achieving health gain through clinical guidelines II: ensuring guidelines change medical practice. Qual Health Care. 1994;3:45–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Eccles M, Freemantle N, Mason J. North of England evidence based guidelines development project: methods of developing guidelines for efficient drug use in primary care. BMJ. 1998;316:1232–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Weingarten S. How to judge practice guidelines. WJM. 1999;170:352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Barton S. Using clinical evidence. Having the evidence in your hand is just a start – but a good one. BMJ. 2001;322:503–4.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shekelle PG, Ortiz E, Rhodes S, Morton SC, Eccles MP, Grimshaw JM, Woolf SH. Validity of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality clinical practice guidelines. How quickly do clinical guidelines become outdated? JAMA. 2001;286:1461–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Shekelle P, Eccles J, Grimshaw JM, Woolf SH. When should clinical guidelines be updated? BMJ. 2001;323:155–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Woolf S, Schünemann HJ, Eccles MP, Graimshaw JM, Shekelle P. Developing clinical practice guidelines: types of evidence and outcomes; values and economics, synthesis, grading, and presentation and deriving recommendations. Implement Sci. 2012;7:61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shekelle P, Woolf S, Grimsahw JM, Schünemann HJ, Eccles MP. Developing clinical guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development. Implement Sci. 2012;7:62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Grol R. Implementing guidelines in general practice care. Qual Health Care. 1992;1:184–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Feder G, Eccles M, Grol R, Griffins C, Grimshaw J. Using clinical guidelines. BMJ. 1999;318:728–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Grimshaw J, Freemantle N, Wallace S, Russell I, Hurwitz I, Watt I, Long A, Sheldon T. Developing and implementing clinical practice guidelines. Qual Health Care. 1995;4:55–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Conroy M, Shannon W. Clinical guidelines: their implementation in general practice. Br J Gen Pract. 1995;45:371–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Forrest D, Hoskins A, Hussey R. Clinical guidelines and their implementation. Postgrad Med J. 1996;72:19–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wensing M, Van der Weijden T, Grol R. Implementing guidelines and innovations in general practice: which interventions are effective? Br J Gen Pract. 1998;48:991–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Freemantle N. Implementation strategies. Fam Pract. 2000;17(Suppl 1):S7–S10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gundersen L. The Efect of clinical practice guidelines on variations in care. Ann Intern Med. 2000;133:317–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Heffner JE. The Overaching challenge. Chest. 2000;118:1S–3S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Weingarten S. Translating practice guidelines into patient care. Guidelines at the bedside. Chest. 2000;118:4S–7S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Smith WR. Evidence for the effectiveness of techniques to change physician behavior. Chest. 2000;118:8S–17S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Slotnick HB. Physicians’ learning strategies. Chest. 2000;118:18S–23S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Borbas C, Morris N, McLaughlin B, Asinger R, Gobel F. The role of clinical leaders in guideline implementation and quality improvement. Chest. 2000;118:24S–32S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ockene JK, Zapka JG. Provider education to promote implementation of clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2000;118:33S–9S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Curry SJ. Organizational interventions to encourage guideline implementation. Chest. 2000;118:40S–6S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Payne TH. Computer support systems. Chest. 2000;118:47S–52S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Weiss KB, Wagner R. Performance measurement through audit, feedback, and profiling as tools for improving clinical care. Chest. 2000;118:53S–8S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Tillotson GS. Implementation and physician behavior change. An industry perspective. Chest. 2000;118:59S–61S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Crim C. Clinical practice guidelines vs actual clinical practice. The asthma paradigm. Chest. 2000;118:62–64S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mitchell JP. Guideline implementation in the Department of Defense. Chest. 2000;118:65S–9S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Grol R. Beliefs and evidence in changing clinical practice. BMJ. 1997;315:418–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Haines A, Feder G. Guidance on guidelines. Writing them is easier than making them work. BMJ. 1992;305:785–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Durieux P, Ravaud P. From clinical guidelines to quality assurance: the experience of assistance Publique-Hospitaux de Paris. Int J Qual Health Care. 1997;9:215–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gagliardi AR, Brouwers MC, Palda VA, Lemieux-Charles L, Grimshaw JM. How can we improve guideline use? A conceptual framework of implementability. Implement Sci. 2011;6:26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Grol R, Wensing M, Eccles M, Davis D. Improving patient care. The implementation of change in health care. London: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Morris AH. Developing and implementing computerized protocols for standardization of clinical decisions. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132:373–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Tunis SR, Hayward RSA, Wilson MC, Rubin HR, Bass EB, Johnston M, Steinberg EP. Internists’ attitudes about clinical practice guidelines. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:956–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Inouye J, Kristopatis R, Stone E, Pelter M, Sandhu M, Weingarten S. Physicians’ changing attitudes toward guidelines. JGIM. 1998;13:324–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Gorton TA, Cranford CO, Golden WE, Walls RC, Pawelak JE. Primary care physicians’ response to dissemination of practice guidelines. Arch Fam Med. 1995;4:135–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Frolkis JP, Zyzanskii SJ, Schwartz JM, Suhan PS. Physician noncompliance with the 1993 National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATPII) guidelines. Circulation. 1998;98:851–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Choudhry NK, Fletcher RH, Soumerai SB. Systematic review: the relationship between clinical experience and quality of health care. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:260–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    De Carvalho FA, Schwamm LH, Kuster GW, Bueno Alves M, Cendoroglo Neto M, Sampaio SG. Get with the guidelines: stroke performance indicators in a brazilian tertiary hospital. Cerebrovasc Dis Extra. 2012;2:26–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Van Ganse E, Souchet T, Laforest L, Moulin P, Bertrand M, Le Jeunne P, et al. Ineffectiveness of lipid-lowering therapy in primary care. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005;59:456–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kirchoff AC, Drum ML, Zhang JX, Schlichting J, Levie J, Harrison JF, et al. Hypertension and hyperlipidemia management in patients treated at community health centers. J Clin Outcomes Manag. 2008;15:125–31.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Renard LM, Bocquet V, Vidal-Trecan G, Lair ML, Blum-Boisgard C. Adherence to international follow-up guidelines in type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal cohort study in Luxembourg. PLoS One. 2013;8:e80162. Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ellrodt AG, Conner L, Riedinger M, Weingarten S. Measuring and improving physician compliance with clinical practice guidelines. A controlled interventional trial. Ann Intern Med. 1995;122:277–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    DeRosario JM. Overcoming 10 roadblocks to initiating clinical practice guidelines. J Healthcare Quality. 1998;20:23–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Cabana MD, Rand CS, Powe NR, Wu AW, Wilson MH, Abboud PAC, Rubin HR. Why don’t physicians follow clinical practice guidelines? A framework for improvement. JAMA. 1999;282:1458–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rogers EM. Difussion of innovations. New York: The Free Press; 1983.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Grilli R, Lomas J. Evaluating the message: the relationship between compliance rate and the subject of a practice guideline. Med Care. 1994;32:202–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lomas J, Anderson GM, Domnick-Pierre K, Vayda E, Enkin MW, Hannah WJ. Do practice guidelines guide practice? The effect of a consensus statement on the practice of physicians. N Engl J Med. 1989;321:1306–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Parker DR, Gramling R, Goldman RE, Eaton CB, Ahern D, Cover RT, et al. Physician’s perceptions of barriers and facilitators regarding adoption of the National Cholesterol Education Program Guidelines. Prev Cardiol. 2008;11:29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Chassin MR. Practice guidelines: best hope for quality improvement in the 1990s. J Occup Med. 1990;32:1199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Woolf SH, Grol R, Hutchinson A, Eccles M, Grimshaw J. Potential benefits, limitations, and harms of clinical guidelines. BMJ. 1999;318:527–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Grol R. Has guideline development gone astray? Yes. BMJ. 2010;340:c306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Woolf SH. Practice guidelines: a new reality in medicine. III. Impact on patient care. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:2646–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Parmley WW. Clinical practice guidelines. Does the cookbook have enough recipes? JAMA. 1994;272:1374–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dans PE. Credibility, cookbook medicine, and common sense: guidelines and the college. Ann Intern Med. 1994;120:966–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Annual BMA. Report of council 1987-8. Appendix V: practical guide to medical ethics. BMJ. 1988;296:40,46–7.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Berger JT, Rosner F. The ethics of practice guidelines. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:2051–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nigam A. Changing health care quality paradigms: the rise of clinical guidelines and quality measures in American medicine. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75:1933–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kahn R. Guidelines: we’ll always need them, we sometimes dislike them, and we have to make them better. Diabetologia. 2010;53:2280–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Haynes RB, Gerstein HC. What evidence? In: Haynes RB, Gerstein HC, editors. Evidence-based diabetes care. BC Decker Inc: Hamilton; 2001.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mountokalakis TD. Hippocrates and the essence of evidence based medicine. Hosp Chronicles. 2006;1:7–8.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kowalski E, Chung KC. The outcomes movement and evidence based medicine in plastic surgery. Clin Plast Surg. 2013;40:241–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Matthews DR. Wisdom-based and evidence-based medicine. Diabetes Obes Met. 2012;14(Suppl. 1):1–2.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Cochrane AL. Effectiveness and efficiency. Random reflections on health services. London: Nuffield Hospitals Trust; 1972.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Chalmers I. The Cochrane collaboration: preparing, Maintaning, and disseminating systematic reviews of the effects of health care. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993;703:156–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Chalmers I, Dickersin K, Chalmers TC. Getting to grips with Archie Cochrane’s agenda. BMJ. 1992;305:786–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sackett DL, Tugwell P, Haynes RB. Clinical epidemiology: a basic science for clinical medicine. Little, Brown and Company: Boston/Toronto; 1985.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. Evidence-based medicine. A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA. 1992;268:2420–5.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Guyatt GH, Haynes RB, Jaeschke RZ, Cook DJ, Green L, Naylor CD, et al. Users’ guides to the medical literature XXV. Evidence-based medicine: principles for applying the users’ guides to patient care. JAMA. 2000;284:1290–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Paauw DS. Did we learn evidence-based medicine in medical school? Some common medical mythology. In: Geyman JP, Deyo RA, Ramsey SD, editors. Evidence-based clinical practice. Concepts and approaches. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann; 2000.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Zipkin DA, Greenblatt L, Kushinka JT. Evidence-based medicine and primary care: keeping up is hard to do. Mt Sinai J Med. 2012;79:545–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Zwolsman SE, Te Pas E, Wieringa-de Waard M, van Dijik N, Hooft L. Barriers to GPs’ use of evidence-based medicine: knowledge and skills, attitude, and external factors. Perspect Med Educ. 2013;2:4–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ioannidis JPA. Why Most published research findings are false. PLoS Med. 2005;2:0696–701.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lohr KN. Rating the strength of scientific evidence: relevance for quality improvement programs. Int J Qual Health Care. 2004;16:9–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination: the periodic health examination. Can Med Assoc J. 1979;12:1193–254.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Herxheimer A. The Cochrane collaboration: making the results of controlled trials properly accessible. Postgrad Med J. 1993;69:867–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Smith R. The Cochrane collaboration at 20. Much has been achieved, but much remains to be done. BMJ. 2013;347:f7383. Scholar
  140. 140.
    United States Department of Health and Human Services, Agency of Health Care Policy and Research. Acute pain management: operative or medical procedures and trauma, 107. Clinical practice guideline No 1, AHCPR publication No 92–0023. Rockville: AHCPR; 1993.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Altman DG. Better reporting of randomized controlled trials: the CONSORT statement. BMJ. 1996;313:570–1.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    The AGREE Collaboration. Development and validation of an international appraisal instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines: the AGREE project. Qual Saf Health Care. 2003;12:18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Brouwers M, Kho ME, Browman GP, Cluzeau F, Feder G, Fervers B, et al, on behalf of the AGREE Next Steps Consortium. AGREE II: Advancing guideline development, reporting and evaluation in health care. Can Med Assoc J. 2010;182:E839–42.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
  145. 145.
    Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Irwig LM, et al. Towrds complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. Standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy. Clin Chem. 2003;49:1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Atkins D, Eccles M, Flottorp S, Guyatt GH, Henry D, Hill S, et al. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations I: critical appraisal for existing approaches the Grade working group. BMC Health Serv Res. 2004;22:38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Atkins D, Briss PA, Eccles M, Flottorp S, Guyatt GH, Harbour RT, et al. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations II: pilot study of a new system the Grade working group. BMC Health Serv Res. 2005;23:25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ. 2004;328:1490–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Stone SP, Cooper BS, Kibbler CC, Cookson BD, Roberts JA, Medley GF, et al. The ORION statement: guidelines for transparent reporting of outbreak reports and intervention studies of nosocomial infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:833–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    OCEBM Levels of Evidence Working Group. The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence. Accessed 16 June 2014 at:
  151. 151.
    Graham R, Mancher M, Wolman DM, Greenfield S, Steinberg E, editors. Clinical practice guidelines we can trust. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2011.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Greenhalgh T, Wong G, Westhorp G, Pawson R. Protocol-realist and meta-narrative evidence synthesis: evolving standards (RAMESES). BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011;11:115.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    WHO handbook for guideline development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2012.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Center for Evidence and Practice Improvement (CEPI). Accessed 11 Aug 2014, at
  155. 155.
    Luder AS. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines: what is the evidence? IMAJ. 2011;13:689–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    The Joint National Committee on Detection. Report of the joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. A cooperative study. JAMA. 1977;237:255–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    The Joint National Committee on Detection. The 1980 report of the joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1980;140:1280–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    The Joint National Committee on Detection. The 1984 report of the joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1984;144:1045–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    The Joint National Committee on Detection. The 1988 report of the joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:1023–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    The Joint National Committee on Detection. The fifth report of the joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1993;153:154–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    The Joint National Committee on Detection. The sixth report of the joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157:2413–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. The seventh report of the joint National Committee on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. The JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003;289:2560–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL, Cushman WC, Dennison-Himmelfarb C, Handler J, et al. 2014 Evidence-Based Guideline for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults. Report from the Panel Members Appointed by The Eight Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014;311:507–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Rodriguez-Saldana J. The components in the improvement of quality of health care. In Rodriguez-Saldana J: Quality of health care, from evidence to implementation. New York: Nova Publishers; 2015.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison EJ, et al. ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on clinical practice guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(19):e127–248. Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hypertension. Hypertension 2017 Guideline Data Supplements 1–283. Downloaded on December 12, 2017.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1989;12:365–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Expert Committee of the Canadian Diabetes Advisory Board. Clinical practice guidelines for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Can Med Assoc J. 1992;147:697–712.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:S33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. The periodic health examination. CMA J. 1979;121:1193–254.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Nathan DM, Buse JB, Heine RJ, Holman RR, Sherwin R, Zinman B. Management of Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:1963–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Nathan DM, Buse JB, Davidson MB, Ferrannini E, Holman RR, Sherwin R, Zinman B. Medical Management of Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a consensus algorithm for the initiation and adjustment of therapy. Diabetes Care. 2009;32:193–203.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    American Diabetes Association. Glycemic targets: standards of medical Care in Diabetes 2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee. Targets of Glycemic control. Can J Diabetes. 2013;37:S31–4.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    National Institute of Clinical Excellence NICE. Type 2 diabetes in adults. NICE guideline. Published 2 December 2015. Downloaded on February 27, 2018 at
  176. 176.
    Weng J, Ji L, Jia W, Lu J, Zhou Z, Zou D, et al. Standards of care for type 2 diabetes in China. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2016;32:442–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    International Diabetes Federation. Recommendations for Managing Type 2 Diabetes in Primary Care 2017. www.idf/managing-type2-diabetes.
  178. 178.
    Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Diabetes Australia. General Practice Guideline of Type 2 Diabetes 2016–2018.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Garber AJ, Abrahamson MJ, Barzilay JI, Blonde L, Bloomgarden ZT, Bush MA. Consensus statement by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of endocrinology on the comprehensive type 2 diabetes management algorithm - 2018 executive summary. Endocr Pract. 2018;24:91–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Kansagara D, Horwitch C, Barry MJ, Forciea MA. Hemoglobin A1c targets for Glycemic control with pharmacologic therapy for nonpregnant adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a guidance statement update from the American college of physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2018;168(8):569–76. Scholar
  181. 181.
    Ganda OP, Gabbay RA. Evidence-based diabetes management. Joslin Diabetes Center clinical guidelines. Am J Manag Care. 2018;24:SP203–62.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Inzucchi SE, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E, Nauck M, et al. Management of Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-Centered approach. Position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of diabetes (EASD). Diabetes Care. 2012;35:1364–79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Byington RP, et al. Action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes study group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2545–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J, et al. ADVANCE collaborative group. Intensive blood glucose control and macrovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:2560–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Turnbull FM, Abraira C, Anderson RJ, Byington RP, Chalmers JP, Duckworth WC, et al. Intensive glucose control and macrovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2288–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Raz I, Riddle MC, Rosenstock J, Buse JB, Inzucchi SE, Home PD, et al. Personalized Management of Hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:1779–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Mülhauser I, Meyer G. Evidence base in guideline generation in diabetes. Diabetologia. 2013;56:1201–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Kuehn BM. IOM sets out “gold standard” practices for creating guidelines, systematic reviews. JAMA. 2011;305:1846–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Ransohoff M, Pignone M, Sox HC. How to decide whether a clinical practice guideline is trustworthy. JAMA. 2013;309:139–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Vigersky RA. A review and critical analysis of professional societies´ guidelines for pharmacologic Management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Diab Rep. 2012;12:246–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Grant RW, Kirkman MS. Trends in the evidence level of the American Diabetes Association’s “standards of medical Care in Diabetes” from 2005 to 2014. Diabetes Care. 2015;38:6–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Bouchonville MF, Matani S, DuBroff JJ, DuBroff RJ. Are diabetes guidelines truly evidence based? Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017;127:70–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kruse BC, Vassar BM. Unbreakable? An analysis of the fragility of randomized trials that support diabetes treatment guidelines. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2017;134:91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    LeFevre M. From authority to evidence-based medicine: are clinical practice guidelines moving us forward or backward? Ann Fam Med. 2017;15:410–2.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Bennett WL, Odelola OA, Wilson LM, Bolen S, Selvaraj S, Robinson KA, et al. Evaluation of guideline recommendations on oral medications for type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2012;156:27–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
  197. 197.
    Anwer MA, Al-Fahed O, Arif SI, Amer YS, Titi MA, Al-Rukban MO. Quality assessment of recent evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults using the AGREE II instrument. J Eval Clin Pract. 2018;24(1):166–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Radwan M, Akbari Sari A, Rashidian A, Takian A, Abou-Dagga S, Elsous A. Appraising the methodological quality of the clinical practice guidelines for diabetes mellitus using the AGREE II instrument: a methodological evaluation. J R Soc Med Open. 2017;8:1–8.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    El-Kebbi IM, Ziemer DC, Musey VC, Gallina DL, Phillips LS. Diabetes in urban African-Americans. IX. Provider adherence to management protocols. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:698–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Fantini MP, Compagni A, Rucci A, Mimmi S, Longo F. General practitioners´ adherence to evidence-based guidelines: a multilevel analysis. Health Care Manag Rev. 2012;37(1):67–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Birrenbach T, Kraehenmann S, Perrig M, Berendonk C, Huwendiek S. Physicians’ attitudes toward use of, and perceived barriers to clinical guidelines: a survey among Swiss physicians. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2016;7:673–80.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Bryant W, Greenfield JR, Chisholm DJ, Campbell LV. Diabetes guidelines: easier to preach than to practice? MJA. 2006;185:305–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Barth JH, Misra S, Aakre KM, Langlois MR, Watine J, Twomey PJ, Oosterhuis WP. Why are clinical practice guidelines not followed? Clin Chem Lab Med. 2016;54:1133–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Benjamin EM, Schneider MS, Hinchey KT. Implementing practice guidelines for diabetes care using problem-based learning. Diabetes Care. 1999;22:1672–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Kirkman MS, Williams SR, Caffrey HH, Marrero DG. Impact of a program to improve adherence to diabetes guidelines by primary care physicians. Diabetes Care. 2002;25:1946–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Pruthu TK, Majella MG, Nair D, Ramaswamy G, Palanivel C, Subitha L, et al. Does audit improve diabetes care in a primary care setting? A management tool to address health system gaps. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2015;6:S58–62.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Marahrens L, Röck D, Ziemssen T, Kern R, Ziemssen F, Fritsche A. Implementation of the National Guidelines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 in secondary diabetes centers. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2017;142:e131–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Gaede P, Vedel P, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Intensified multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria: the Steno type 2 randomized trail. Lancet. 1999;353:617–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Gaede P, Valentine WJ, Larsen N, Jensen GV, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:383–93.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Gaede P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HR, Pedersen O. Effect of a multifactorial intervention on mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:580–91.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Gaede P, Oellgaard J, Carstensen B, Rossing P, Lund-Andersen H, Parving HH, et al. Years of life gained by multifactorial intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria: 21 years follow-up on the Steno-2 randomized trial. Diabetologia. 2016;59:2298–307.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Gaede P, Valentine WJ, Palmer AJ, Tucker DM, Lammert M, Parving HH, et al. Cost-effectiveness of intensified versus conventional multifactorial intervention in type 2 diabetes: results and projections from the Steno-2 study. Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1510–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Pimazoni-Netto A, Zanella MT. Diabetes guidelines may delay timely adjustments during treatment and might contribute to clinical inertia. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2014;16:768–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Reach G, Pechtner V, Gentilella R, Corcos A, Ceriello A. Clinical inertia and its impact on treatment intensification in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab. 2017;43:501–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Armstrong MJ, Bloom JA. Patient involvement in guidelines is poor five years after institute of medicine standards: review of guideline methodologies. Res Involv Engagem. 2017;3:19.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Hale K, Capra S, Bauer J. Are nutrition messages lost in transmission? Assessing the quality and consistency of diabetes guideline recommendations on the delivery of nutrition therapy. Patient Educ Couns. 2016;99:1940–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Piette JD, Kerr EA. The impact of comorbid chronic conditions on diabetes care. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:725–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Hughes LD, McMurdo ET, Guthrie B. Guidelines for people not for diseases: the challenges of applying UK clinical guidelines to people with multimorbidity. Age Ageing. 2013;42:62–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    American Diabetes Association. 3. Comprehensive medical evaluation and assessment of comorbidities: standards of medical Care in Diabetes – 2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S28–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Ceriello A, Gallo M, Candido R, De Micheli A, Esposito K, Gentile S, Medea G. Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes: a phenothype-based approach. Pharmacogenomics Pers Med. 2014;7:129–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Conlin PR, Colburn J, Aron D, Pries RM, Tschanz MP, Pogach L. Synopsis of the 2017 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs/U.S. Department of Defense clinical practice guideline: Management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:655–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Abbate SL. Expanded ABCs of diabetes. Clin Diabetes. 2003;21:128–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Schimke KE, Renström F, Meier S, Stettler C, Brändle M. Compliance with guidelines for disease management in diabetes: results from the Swiss Diab registry. BMJ Open Res Care. 2018;6:e000454. Scholar
  224. 224.
    Harris SB, Stewart M, Brown JB, Wetmore S, Faulds C, Webster-Bogaert S, Porter S. Type 2 diabetes in family practice. Room for improvement. Can Fam Physician. 2003;49:778–85.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel Rodriguez-Saldana
    • 1
  1. 1.Multidisciplinary Centre of DiabetesMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations