Zolpidem: The Arrested Woman with No Recollection of Events

  • Vijayabharathi Ekambaram
  • Britta Klara OstermeyerEmail author


Z-drugs, such as zolpidem and zopiclone, have been associated with sleep-related behaviors, parasomnia, abnormal thinking, disinhibition, aggressiveness, mood alterations, and anterograde amnesia. Sleep driving is one of the Z-drug-induced parasomnias reported frequently with zolpidem and often raises diagnostic challenges among clinicians due to its complex presentation and medico legal ramifications. This review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, psychopharmacology, diagnosis, laboratory tests, and forensic aspects of Z-drug-induced sleep driving. In addition, this review helps practitioners to identify and distinguish Z-drug-induced sleep driving from individuals with history of somnambulism, as this distinction is key for diagnostic clarification in medico legal cases.


Sleep driving Sleep walking Drug-induced driving Zolpidem Zopiclone Parasomnia 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vijayabharathi Ekambaram
    • 1
  • Britta Klara Ostermeyer
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of Oklahoma Health Sciences CenterOklahoma CityUSA

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