• Hassan RazaEmail author
Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)


One may envision that nanofabrication also involves two approaches. The first is the top-down approach where the nanostructures are fabricated by patterning and etching material. The second is the bottom-up approach towards nanofabrication, which is based on how the nature works, i.e. engineering the building blocks in a way that they fit together under the right conditions.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Fundamental ResearchIslamabadPakistan

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