Given that all matter consists of atoms, there are only 90 naturally occurring elements on the planet Earth (Elements with atomic numbers 1 through 92 (except elements with atomic numbers 43 and 61) occur naturally.). However, if one looks at the naturally occurring or even man-made materials in daily life, there is an enormous range of structures and properties. Such a diversity is precisely due to the various arrangements at the atomic scale of an otherwise finite set of elements. In the previous chapter about the atomic arrangement, we motivated the reader by stating that it is indispensable to understand how atoms interact with each other and how this arrangement affects the nanoscale properties. In this chapter, we focus on the role that atomic arrangement in various dimensions plays in determining the physical and chemical properties of a material.