• Hassan RazaEmail author
Part of the Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics book series (ULNP)


Nanotechnology is the art and science of designing materials, devices and systems at the nanoscale. Nanomaterials usually have critical dimension less than 100 nm, where one nanometer is a billionth of a meter, i.e. \(1\,\mathrm{nm} = 10^{-9}\) m. To give an idea of the length scale, one may imagine that there are usually two to five atoms in one nanometer, depending on the type of atoms. Thus, nanotechnology boils down to working at the atomic scale ranging from a few atom systems to as many as millions or even billions of atoms packed into a cube of 100 nm side each.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Fundamental ResearchIslamabadPakistan

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