Dimensions of Political Differentiation in Europe
This chapter provides a synopsis of vertical and horizontal differentiation in Europe. The chapter starts by looking at vertical differentiation, which entails that some policy areas are more centralised than others. The focus here will be on the Economic and Monetary Union, where vertical differentiation has grown significantly in response to the 2008 financial crisis. Then the chapter turns to horizontal differentiation. Policy fields have a certain level of territorial extension – i.e. some policies are accepted and implemented by some member states, but not by others. Horizontal differentiation is extensive, both internally and externally, and the chapter focuses on the areas of the Economic and Monetary Union, Justice and Home Affairs, Foreign Policy and Defence and the Single Market and Trade.
KeywordsPolitical differentiation Economic and monetary union Partnership
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