Advertisement

Enhancing Energy Conservation by a Household Energy Game

  • Jan Dirk L. FijnheerEmail author
  • Herre van OostendorpEmail author
  • Remco C. VeltkampEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11385)

Abstract

This paper presents the results of a study, comparing a game versus a dashboard with respect to energy conservation in the household. In a pretest-posttest design, an empirical study tested whether change in attitude, knowledge, engagement and behaviour with respect to energy conservation in the household was different for participants playing Powersaver Game compared to a control condition where participants used an energy dashboard with the same content, but excluding game features. The aim of this game (developed using an iterative user-centered game design methodology) is to influence household energy consumption by means of electricity and gas usage in the long-term. The intervention time was at least 5 weeks and pre and post measures based on 21 days intervals. All energy conservation activities that the application provides (e.g. washing clothes on low temperatures) take place in the real world and feedback is based on real time energy consumption. This inverse gamification principle aims to optimize the transfer between the game world and the real world. Energy consumption significantly changed in the game condition compared to the control condition, and the difference between both conditions is more than 33% after the intervention. In the game condition, knowledge about energy conservation was significantly increased, although no significant differences in increase of attitude and engagement were found. We conclude that Powersaver Game is effective in transfer of energy conservation knowledge, which leads to energy saving behaviour on the long term. It cannot be concluded that playing the game leads to a greater change in attitude, however, attitude scores of the participants were high from the start.

Keywords

Gamification Energy conservation Persuasive games Behaviour change 

References

  1. 1.
    Adams, E.: Fundamentals of Game Design, 3rd edn. Pearson, Peachpit, California (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aronson, E., Wilson, T.D., Akert, R.M.: Social Psychology. Pearson, Upper Saddle River (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bang, M., Gustafsson, A., Katzeff, C.: Promoting new patterns in household energy consumption with pervasive learning games. In: de Kort, Y., et al. (eds.) Persuasive Technology. LNCS, vol. 4744, pp. 55–63. Springer, Heidelberg (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-77006-0_7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bang, M., Svahn, M., Gustafsson, A.: Persuasive design of a mobile energy conservation game with direct feedback and social cues. In: Proceedings of the 2009 DiGRA International Conference: Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, S., Chaiken, S.: The heuristic-systematic model in its’ broader context. In: Chaiken, S., Trope, Y. (eds.) Dual Process Theories in Social Psychology. Guilford Press, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Deterding, S., Khaled, R., Nacke, L., Dixon, D.: Gamification: toward a definition. In: CHI 2011 Gamification Workshop Proceedings. ACM Press, Vancouver (2011)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dickey, M.D.: Murder on Grimm Isle: the impact of game narrative design in an educational game-based learning environment. Br. J. Educ. Technol. 42(3), 456–469 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fijnheer, J.D.L., van Oostendorp, H.: Steps to design a household energy game. Int. J. Serious Games 3(3), 16 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fijnheer, J.D.L., van Oostendorp, H., Veltkamp, R.C.: Gamification in a prototype household energy game. In Connolly, T., Boyle, L. (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Game Based Learning - ECGBL 2016, pp. 192–201. ACPI, Paisley (2016)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gamberini, L., et al.: Tailoring feedback to users’ actions in a persuasive game for household electricity conservation. In: Bang, M., Ragnemalm, E.L. (eds.) Persuasive Technology, Design for Health and Safety. LNCS, vol. 7284, pp. 100–111. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31037-9_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gustafsson, A., Katzeff, C., Bang, M.: Evaluation of a pervasive game for domestic energy engagement among teenagers. ACM Comp. Entertain. 7(4), 1–19 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hargreaves, T., Nye, M., Burgess, J.: Making energy visible: a qualitative field study of how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors. Energy Policy 38(10), 6111–6119 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kors, M., van der Spek, E., Schouten, B.: A foundation for the persuasive gameplay experience. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, CA, USA (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Krosnick, J.A., Petty, R.E.: Attitude strength: an overview. In: Petty, R.E., Krosnick, J.A. (eds.) Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, pp. 1–24. Erlbaum, Mahwah (1995)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mayer, R.E.: Multimedia learning and games. In: Tobias, S., Fletcher, J.D. (eds.) Computer Games and Instruction, pp. 281–305. Information Age Publishing, Charlotte (2011)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reeves, B., Cummings, J.J., Scarborough, J.K., Yeykelis, L.: Increasing energy efficiency with entertainment media: an experimental and field test of the influence of a social game on performance of energy behaviors. Envir. Behav. 20(10), 1–14 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ruggiero, D.: The Effect of a Persuasive Game on Attitude towards the Homeless. Unpublished thesis, Purdue University (2013)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schneider, E.F., Lang, M., Shin, M., Bradley, S.D.: Death with a story how story impacts emotional, motivational, and physiological responses to first- person shooter video games. Hum. Commun. Res. 30(3), 361–375 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Soekarjo, M., van Oostendorp, H.: Measuring effectiveness of persuasive games using an informative control condition. Int. J. Serious Games 2(2), 37–56 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Svahn, M.: Persuasive Pervasive Games: the Case of Impacting Energy Consumption. Dissertation, Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden (2014)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van der Spek, E.D.: Experiments in serious game design: A cognitive approach. Dissertation, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Watt, S.E., Maio, G.R., Haddock, G., Johnson, B.T.: Attitude functions in persuasion: matching, involvement, self-affirmation, and hierarchy. In: Crano, W.D., Prislin, R. (eds.) Attitudes and Attitude Change, pp. 189–211. Psychology Press, New York (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Information and Computing SciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtNetherlands
  2. 2.Inholland University of Applied ScienceDiemenNetherlands

Personalised recommendations