Design of Energy-Aware PRoPHET and Spray-and-Wait Routing Protocols for Opportunistic Networks

  • Sibusiso ShabalalaEmail author
  • Zelalem Shibeshi
  • Khuram KhalidEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies book series (LNDECT, volume 27)


Opportunistic networks are kind of networks where connectivity disruption and topology changes are frequent. In such environment, nodes are responsible to dynamically discover the next hop that can be used to forward the message closer to the destination using the so-called store-and-forward mechanism. In this sense, the performance of nodes in transferring the message to the destination is highly influenced by the routing and forwarding algorithm employed by the network. A number of efficient benchmark routing protocols for OppNets have been investigated, including the PRoPHET and Spray-and-Wait protocols. This chapter proposes energy-efficient versions of the PRoPHET and Spray-and-Wait routing protocols that are designed to reduce the number of message copies generated in the network and ensures that only nodes with high residual energy are selected as next hop. Through simulation, we have proven that our proposed energy-efficient versions of the mentioned routing protocols outperform the original version in terms of energy consumption, overhead ratio and number of messages delivered to destination.


Opportunistic networks (OppNets) Performance evaluation PRoPHET Spray and Wait (S&W) ONE simulator 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of Fort HareAliceSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Computer ScienceRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

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