A Reliable Firefly-Based Routing Protocol for Efficient Communication in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

  • Nakul Sabharwal
  • Priyanka Singla
  • Mrigali Gupta
  • Jagdeep Singh
  • Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies book series (LNDECT, volume 27)


In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the transfer of data packets from source to destination involves the use of an efficient path search mechanism. This paper proposes such mechanism, designed in the form of firefly-swarm next hop selection algorithm with angular routing (referred to as efficient firefly routing protocol (EFR)), meant to discover a suitable route from source to destination for data packets transfer. In the proposed EFR protocol, the swarm intelligence of fireflies is deployed to find the destination node using social interaction among fireflies. In doing so, the attractiveness, brightness, position of other fireflies, neighbor’s angular position, and destination coordinates of each firefly are considered as parameters to compute its next flight toward an intermediate or destination node. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed EFR protocol, showing that it outperforms the dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol in terms of throughput, packet delivery ratio, percentage of lost packet, and end-to-end delay, both under static and high mobility scenarios.



This work is partially supported by a grant from the National Funding from the FCT—Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia through the UID/EEA/500008/2013 Project, by Finep, with resources from Funttel, Grant No. 01.14.0231.00, under the Radiocommunication Reference Center (Centro de Referência em Radiocomunicações-CRR) Project of the National Institute of Telecommunications (Inatel), Brazil, and by the Brazilian National Council for Research and Development (CNPq) via Grant No. 309335/2017-5, all held by the fifth author.


  1. 1.
    S. Olariu, M.C. Weigle, Vehicular Networks: From Theory to Practice. Chapman & Hall/CRC Computer and Information Science Series (Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, 2017), 472 pp. ISBN 9781138116597Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.K. Dhurandher, G.V. Singh, Weight based adaptive clustering in wireless ad hoc networks, in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Personal Wireless Communication (ICPWC 2005), New Delhi, January 2005, pp. 95–100Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Harrabia, W. Chainbi, K. Ghedira, A multi-agent approach for routing on vehicular ad-hoc networks, Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Ambient Systems, Networks and Technologies (ANT 2013). Procedia Computer Science, vol. 19 (2013), pp. 578–585Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. Bitam, A. Mellouk, S. Zeadally, Bio-inspired routing algorithms survey for vehicular ad hoc networks. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 17, 843–867 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    X.S. Yang, Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms (Luniver Press, Bristol, 2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    GlomoSim: Global Mobile Information Systems Simulation Library. (Last visited Apr. 15, 2018)
  7. 7.
    X.S. Yang, X. He, Firefly algorithm: recent advances and applications. Int. J. Swarm Intell. 1(1), 36–50 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    X.S. Yang, Chaos-enhanced firefly algorithm with automatic parameter tuning. Int. J. Swarm Intell. Res. 2(4), 1–11 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.B. Johnson, D.A. Maltz, Dynamic source routing in ad hoc wireless networks, in Mobile Computing, Ch. 5, ed. by T. Imielinski, H. Korth (Kluwer Academic Publishing, Norwell, 1996), pp. 153–181Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Brendha, V.S.J. Prakash, A survey on routing protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks, in Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communication Systems (ICACCS), Coimbatore, January 6–7, 2017Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. Chhabra, R. Kumar, Efficient routing in vehicular ad-hoc networks using firefly optimization, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies (ICICT), August 26–27, 2016, Coimbatore, pp. 1–7.
  12. 12.
    A.M. Oranj, R.M. Alguliev, F. Yusifov, S. Jamali, Routing algorithms for vehicular ad hoc network based on dynamic ant colony optimization. Int. J. Electron. Eng. 4(1), 79–83 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nakul Sabharwal
    • 1
  • Priyanka Singla
    • 1
  • Mrigali Gupta
    • 1
  • Jagdeep Singh
    • 1
  • Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Information TechnologyNetaji Subhas Institute of Technology, University of DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of Telecommunications (Inatel)Santa Rita do SapucaíBrazil
  3. 3.Instituto de TelecomunicaçõesLisboaPortugal
  4. 4.University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR)FortalezaBrazil

Personalised recommendations