Advertisement

Creating a Map of the Underground Heritage in the Mediterranean Area: A Visual Representation for a Comprehensive Research

  • Beniamino PolimeniEmail author
  • Roberto Bixio
  • Carla Galeazzi
  • Carlo Germani
  • Mario Parise
  • Stefano Saj
  • Mariangela Sammarco
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 26)

Abstract

Interest in man-made (or artificial) cavities in the countries of the Mediterranean Basin led the Commission of the Italian Speleological Society to study and catalogue some of the most common troglodyte types in the region. Since 2000, the Commission has drawn up a study of the geographical distribution of rock-cut structures through a project initially developed by Mario Mainetti and Erica Besana in 1994. This geographical catalogue has been realised through integrating the information available in the international bibliography with the scientific research carried out by the Commission and the research groups affiliated therewith. The result of this work is a list of 1948 rupestrian sites distributed throughout 31 countries and represented on a general map. In this chapter, a general overview of the project is presented, along with a description of some case studies from different countries, including Tunisia, Libya, Turkey and Italy.

Keywords

Artificial cavities Rock-Cut architecture Mediterranean area Maps Cave dwellings Underground defensive systems 

References

  1. 1.
    Andaloro M (ed) (2009) Terra di roccia e pittura. La Cappadocia e il Latium rupestre. Gangemi Editore, RomaGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bixio R, Caloi V, Castellani V, Traverso M (2009) Ani 2004. Surveys on the underground settlements. British Archaeological Reports-BAR, International Series 1944. Archaeopress, Oxford, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bixio R, Castellani V, Succhiarelli C (eds) (2002) Cappadocia. Le città sotterranee. Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Roma, ItaliaGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bixio R, De Pascale A, Mainetti M (2012) Census of rocky sites in the Mediterranean sea. In: Crescenzi C, Caprara R (eds) The rupestrian settlements in the circum-Mediterranean sea. Università degli Studi, Firenze, Italia, pp 89–93Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bixio R, Parise M, Yamac A (2017) Idraulica rupestre in Turchia. Geologia dell’Ambiente, suppl. n. 3/2017, Convegno “Tecnica di Idraulica Antica”, SIGEA, Roma, 18 Novembre 2016, pp 145–151Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Caprara R, Dell’Aquila F (2004) Per una tipologia delle abitazioni rupestri medievali. Archeologia Medievale 31:457–472Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dell’Aquila F, Messina A (1998) Le chiese rupestri di Puglia e Basilicata. Adda, BariGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Minicis E (2008) Metodi e strategie d’indagine per lo studio degli insediamenti rupestri nel Latium. In: Insediamenti rupestri di età medievale: abitazioni e strutture produttive, a cura di E. De Minicis, Atti del Convegno di studio, Grottaferrata 27–29 ottobre 2005, Centro It. di studi sull’Alto Medioevo, Spoleto, 2008, pp 293–314Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Pascale A, Bixio R (2011) Under and inside Ahlat: the KA.Y.A. (Kaya Yerleşimleri Ahlat) Project. In: Baş A, Eravşar O, Duran R, Dursun S (eds) Proceedings of the XIV. symposium in Medieval and Turkish excavation and art history studies, 2010 (pp 173–190). Selçuk Üniversitesi, Konya, TürkiyeGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Del Prete S, Parise M (2013) An overview of the geological and morphological constraints in the excavation of artificial cavities. In: Proceedings of 16th international congress of speleology, vol 1, pp 236–241. Czech Speleological Society, BrnoGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Despois J (1935) Le Djebel Nefousa (Tripolitaine): étude géographique. Larose, ParisGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dobosz T, Galeazzi C (2005) Dimore celesti per santi e briganti. Alla scoperta di tre eremi fra Latium e Abruzzo. Speleologia 50(1–2004):46–51Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Felici A, Cappa G (1992) Santuari rupestri in provincia di Viterbo. Informazioni, Anno I, n. 7, Luglio – Dicembre 1992, 120–127Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fonseca CD (1980) La civiltà rupestre in Puglia. In Aa.Vv., La Puglia fra Bisanzio e l’Occidente (pp 37–116). MilanoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gabriel U, Treister M (1999) Lower City, spring cave and vicinity. Studia Troica, 9, 23–25. Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, DeutschlandGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Galeazzi C (2011) L’antico insediamento di San Lorenzo (Viterbo-Latium). In: Proceedings of Convegno Nazionale di Speleologia in cavità artificiali, pp 45–60. Opera Ipogea 1/2-2011, Società Speleologica Italiana EdGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Germani C, Galeazzi C, Dobosz T, Galeazzi S (2014) Cavità artificiali nell’insediamento medievale di Belmonte (Castelnuovo di Porto, Roma). Opera Ipogea, 2/2014:45–60Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gilli E, Yamaç A, Tok E (2014) Halys deviation tunnel and cliff dwellings of Sarıhıdır (Cappadocia - Turkey). Opera Ipogea, 2/2014:29–36Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Golany G (1989) Earth-sheltered dwellings in Tunisia: ancient lessons for modern design. University of Delaware Press, NewarkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Herodotus (2008) The histories. Waterfield R (trans.), Dewald C (ed), Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jolivet-Lévy C (1997) La Cappadoce. Mémoire de Byzance. Paris Mediterranée/CNRS Éditons, Paris, FranceCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jolivet-Lévy C (2001) La Cappadoce médiévale. Zodiaque, Saint-Léger-Vauban, FranceGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Korfmann M (2003) Troia in light of new research (Reden an der Universitat). Universität Trier, Trier, DeutschlandGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Laureano P (2001) Water atlas. Traditional knowledge to combat desertification. Bollati Boringhieri, TorinoGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lionetti G, Borneo V, Santarcangelo S, Pelosi M, Viva M, Parise M (2015) The San Pellegrino rock-hewn complex at Matera: a magnificent example of the rupestrian culture in southern Italy. In: Proceedings of the international congress in artificial cavities “Hypogea 2015”, pp 41–52. Hypogea, RomeGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mora C, Balza ME, Bixio R, De Pascale A (2017) A link between “ancient words” and the “underground world”: Cappadocian landscape, rock-cut structures and textual evidence from Hittite documentation. In: Parise M, Galeazzi C, Bixio R, Yamaç A (eds) Proceedings international congress in artificial cavities ‘Hypogea 2017’. Cappadocia, Türkiye, pp 65–76Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Parise M, Sammarco M (2015) The historical use of water resources in karst. Environ Earth Sci 74:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Parise M, Federico A, Delle Rose M, Sammarco M (2003) Karst terminology in Apulia (southern Italy). Acta Carsologica 32(2):65–82Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Parise M, Galeazzi C, Bixio R, Dixon M (2013a). Classification of artificial cavities: a first contribution by the UIS Commission. In: Proceedings 16th international congress of speleology, vol 2, pp 230–235. Czech Speleological Society, BrnoGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Parise M, Marangella A, Maranò P, Sammarco M, Sannicola G (2013b) Collecting, transporting and storing water in karst settings of southern Italy: some lessons learned from ancient hydraulic systems. Water Sci Technol: Water Supply 13(3):674–682Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Polimeni B (2017) Notes sur le paysage culturel et l’architecture vernaculaire du djebel Nafûsa. Horizons MaghrÉbins Le Droit à La MÉmoire 33(76):135–142Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Quilici Gigli S (1981) Colombari e colombaie nell’Etruria rupestre. Rivista Istituto Nazionale d’Archeologia e Storia dell’Arte, S.III, IV:105–175Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Raspi Serra J (1976) Insediamenti rupestri religiosi nella Tuscia. In: Mélanges de l’Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes, tome 88, n°1, 27–156Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rodley L (2010) Cave monastery of Byzantine Cappadocia (Paperback ed.). Cambridge University Press, New York, N.Y.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Senofonte (1984) Anabasi (Ravenna, E., Italian trans.). Mondadori, Milano, ItaliaGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Stiesdal H (1962) Three deserted Medieval villages in the Roman Campagna. In: Analecta Romana Instituti Danici, vol II, Ed. L’Erma di Bretschneider, Roma, pp 63–100Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beniamino Polimeni
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roberto Bixio
    • 2
    • 3
  • Carla Galeazzi
    • 4
  • Carlo Germani
    • 5
  • Mario Parise
    • 6
  • Stefano Saj
    • 7
  • Mariangela Sammarco
    • 4
  1. 1.School of ArchitectureDe Montfort UniversityLeicesterUK
  2. 2.Centre for Underground StudiesGenovaItaly
  3. 3.National Artificial Cavities Commission—Italian Speleological SocietyBolognaItaly
  4. 4.National Artificial Cavities Commission—Italian Speleological SocietyRomeItaly
  5. 5.National Artificial Cavities Commission—Italian Speleological Society, Egeria Centre for Underground ResearchRomeItaly
  6. 6.Artificial Cavities Commission—International Union of Speleology, University Aldo Moro of BariBariItaly
  7. 7.Centre for Underground Studies, National Artificial Cavities Commission—Italian Speleological SocietyRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations