In light of the human rights violations and risks associated with the extractive industries, states, international organisations and non-state actors have developed a variety of different national and international legal instruments and initiatives aimed at mitigating, preventing and remedying human rights violations in this field. These instruments constitute multilevel, pluralistic and transnational responses to human rights challenges in the extractive industries. Despite its diversity, the transnational law of protecting human rights in the extractive industries is based on general principles that inform and shape the application and development of existing norms and legal instruments. Transparency, participation and resistance emerge as three distinct, but interrelated categories of responses to the challenges and violations of human rights in the extractive industries. They form the three main themes of this volume.