Crowdsourcing Haptic Data Collection

  • Hasti SeifiEmail author
Part of the Springer Series on Touch and Haptic Systems book series (SSTHS)


In this chapter, we investigate the feasibility of large-scale haptic evaluation on online platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk. We introduce proxy modalities as a way to crowdsource vibrotactile sensations by reliably communicating high-level features through a crowd-accessible channel. We investigate two proxy modalities to represent a high-fidelity tactor: a new vibrotactile visualization, and low-fidelity vibratory translations playable on commodity smartphones. We translated 10 high-fidelity vibrations into both modalities, and in two user studies found that both proxy modalities can communicate affective features, and are consistent when deployed remotely over Mechanical Turk. We analyze fit of features to modalities, and suggest future improvements.


  1. 1.
    Brunet, L., Megard, C., Paneels, S., Changeon, G., Lozada, J., Daniel, M.P., Darses, F.: Invitation to the voyage: the design of tactile metaphors to fulfill occasional travelers’ needs in transportation networks. In: IEEE World Haptics Conference (WHC ’13), pp. 259–264 (2013).
  2. 2.
    MacLean, K., Enriquez, M.: Perceptual design of haptic icons. In: Proceedings of EuroHaptics Conference, pp. 351–363 (2003)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hwang, I., Seo, J., Kim, M., Choi, S.: Vibrotactile perceived intensity for mobile devices as a function of direction, amplitude, and frequency. IEEE Trans. Haptics (ToH) 6(3), 352–362 (2013)., Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ternes, D., Maclean, K.E.: Designing large sets of haptic icons with rhythm. In: Haptics: Perception, Devices and Scenarios, pp. 199–208. Springer, Berlin (2008)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brewster, S., Brown, L.M.: Tactons: structured tactile messages for non-visual information display. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Australasian User Interface, vol.28, pp. 15–23. Australian Computer Society, Inc. (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown, L.M., Brewster, S.A., Purchase, H.C.: Multidimensional tactons for non-visual information presentation in mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services (MobileHCI ’06), pp. 231–238. ACM Press, New York (2006).,
  7. 7.
    Obrist, M., Seah, S.A., Subramanian, S.: Talking about tactile experiences. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’13), pp. 1659–1668. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arab, F., Paneels, S., Anastassova, M., Coeugnet, S., Le Morellec, F., Dommes, A., Chevalier, A.: Haptic patterns and older adults: to repeat or not to repeat? In: Proceedings of IEEE World Haptics Conference (WHC ’15), pp. 248–253. IEEE (2015).,
  9. 9.
    Israr, A., Zhao, S., Schwalje, K., Klatzky, R., Lehman, J.: Feel effects: enriching storytelling with haptic feedback. ACM Trans. Appl. Percept. (TAP) 11, 11:1–11:17 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jansson-Boyd, C.V.: Touch matters: exploring the relationship between consumption and tactile interaction. Soc. Semiot. 21(4), 531–546 (2011). Scholar
  11. 11.
    Okamoto, S., Nagano, H., Yamada, Y.: Psychophysical dimensions of tactile perception of textures. IEEE Trans. Haptics (ToH) 6(1), 81–93 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schneider, O.S., MacLean, K.E.: Improvising design with a haptic instrument. In: Proceedings of IEEE Haptics Symposium (HAPTICS ’14), pp. 327–332. IEEE (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Siangliulue, P., Arnold, K.C., Gajos, K.Z., Dow, S.P.: Toward collaborative ideation at scale - leveraging ideas from others to generate more creative and diverse ideas pao. In: Proceedings of ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW ’15), pp. 937–945. ACM Press, New York (2015).,
  14. 14.
    Xu, A., Huang, S.W., Bailey, B.: Voyant: Generating structured feedback on visual designs using a crowd of non-experts. In: ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing (CSCW ’14), pp. 1433–1444. ACM Press, New York (2014).,
  15. 15.
    Cartwright, M., Pardo, B.: VocalSketch: vocally imitating audio concepts. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’15), pp. 43–46. ACM Press, New York (2015).,
  16. 16.
    Pongrac, H.: Vibrotactile perception: examining the coding of vibrations and the just noticeable difference under various conditions. Multimed. Syst. 13(4), 297–307 (2008). Scholar
  17. 17.
    MacLean, K.E.: Foundations of transparency in tactile information design. IEEE Trans. Haptics (ToH) 1(2), 84–95 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hayward, V.: A brief taxonomy of tactile illusions and demonstrations that can be done in a hardware store. Brain Res. Bull. 75(6), 742–752 (2008)., Scholar
  19. 19.
    Israr, A., Poupyrev, I.: Tactile brush: drawing on skin with a tactile grid display. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’11), pp. 2019–2028. ACM Press, Vancouver (2011).,
  20. 20.
    Seo, J., Choi, S.: Perceptual analysis of vibrotactile flows on a mobile device. IEEE Trans. Haptics (ToH) 6(4), 522–527 (2013)., Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hollins, M., Faldowski, R., Rao, S., Young, F.: Perceptual dimensions of tactile surface texture: a multidimensional scaling analysis. Percept. Psychophys. 54, 697–705 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    van Erp, J.B., Spapé, M.M.: Distilling the underlying dimensions of tactile melodies. Proc. Eurohaptics Conf. 2003, 111–120 (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pasquero, J., Luk, J., Little, S., Maclean, K.: Perceptual analysis of haptic icons: an investigation into the validity of cluster sorted mds. In: Proceedings of IEEE Haptic Symposium (HAPTICS ’06), pp. 437–444. IEEE, Alexandria (2006)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chan, A., MacLean, K.E., McGrenere, J.: Designing haptic icons to support collaborative turn-taking. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. (IJHCS) 66, 333–355 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Allen, M., Gluck, J., MacLean, K.E., Tang, E.: An initial usability assessment for symbolic haptic rendering of music parameters. In: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI ’05), pp. 244–251, Trento, Italy (2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yoo, Y., Yoo, T., Kong, J., Choi, S.: Emotional responses of tactile icons: effects of amplitude, frequency, duration, and envelope. In: Proceedings of IEEE World Haptics Conference (WHC’15), pp. 235–240 (2015).
  27. 27.
    Raisamo, J., Raisamo, R., Surakka, V.: Comparison of saltation, amplitude modulation, and a hybrid method of vibrotactile stimulation. IEEE Trans. Haptics (ToH) 6(4), 517–521 (2013). Scholar
  28. 28.
    Koskinen, E., Kaaresoja, T., Laitinen, P.: Feel-good touch: finding the most pleasant tactile feedback for a mobile touch screen button. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI ’08), pp. 297–304. ACM, New York (2008).,
  29. 29.
    Guest, S., Dessirier, J.M., Mehrabyan, A., McGlone, F., Essick, G., Gescheider, G., Fontana, A., Xiong, R., Ackerley, R., Blot, K.: The development and validation of sensory and emotional scales of touch perception. Atten. Percept. Psychophys. 73(2), 531–550 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hwang, I., MacLean, K.E., Brehmer, M., Hendy, J., Sotirakopoulos, A., Choi, S.: The haptic crayola effect: exploring the role of naming in learning haptic stimuli. In: Proceedings of IEE World Haptics Conference (WHC ’11), pp. 385–390. IEEE, Istanbul (2011)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tam, D., MacLean, K.E., McGrenere, J., Kuchenbecker, K.J.: The design and field observation of a haptic notification system for timing awareness during oral presentations. In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’13), pp. 1689–1698. ACM, New York (2013).
  32. 32.
    Zhao, S., Schneider, O., Klatzky, R., Lehman, J., Israr, A.: Feelcraft: Crafting tactile experiences for media using a feel effect library. In: Proceedings of the Adjunct Publication of the 27th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST ’14), pp. 51–52. ACM, New York (2014).
  33. 33.
    Kittur, A., Chi, E.H., Suh, B.: Crowdsourcing user studies with mechanical turk. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’08), pp. 453–456. ACM, New York (2008).
  34. 34.
    Heer, J., Bostock, M.: Crowdsourcing graphical perception: Using mechanical turk to assess visualization design. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’10), pp. 203–212. ACM, New York (2010).
  35. 35.
    Chilton, L.B., Little, G., Edge, D., Weld, D.S., Landay, J.A.: Cascade: Crowdsourcing taxonomy creation. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’13), pp. 1999–2008. ACM, New York (2013).
  36. 36.
    Mason, W., Suri, S.: Conducting behavioral research on amazon’s mechanical turkBehav. Res. Methods44(1), 1–23 (2012). Scholar
  37. 37. Inc.: Amazon Mechanical Turk Requester Best Practices Guide (2015)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Downs, J.S., Holbrook, M.B., Sheng, S., Cranor, L.F.: Are your participants gaming the system? In: Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI ’10), p. 2399. ACM Press, New York (2010).,
  39. 39.
    Modhrain, S.O., Oakley, I.: Touch TV: Adding Feeling to Broadcast Media (2001)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kim, Y., Cha, J., Oakley, I., Ryu, J.: Exploring tactile movies: an initial tactile glove design and concept evaluation. IEEE Multimed. PP(99), 1 (2009).,
  41. 41.
    Abdur Rahman, M., Alkhaldi, A., Cha, J., El Saddik, A.: Adding haptic feature to YouTube. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Multimedia (MM ’10), pp. 1643–1646. ACM Press, New York (2010).,
  42. 42.
    Eid, M., Alamri, A., Saddik, A.: MPEG-7 description of haptic applications using HAML. In: Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Haptic Audio Visual Environments and their Applications (HAVE ’06), pp. 134–139. IEEE (2006).,
  43. 43.
    Eid, M., Andrews, S., Alamri, A., Saddik, A.E.: HAMLAT: A HAML-based authoring tool for haptic application development. In: LNCS 5024 - Haptics: Perception, Devices and Scenarios, vol. 5024, pp. 857–866 (2008)., Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kaaresoja, T., Linjama, J.: Perception of short tactile pulses generated by a vibration motor in a mobile phone. In: First Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 471–472. IEEE (2005).,
  45. 45.
    Brown, L.M., Kaaresoja, T.: Feel who’s talking: using tactons for mobile phone alerts. In: CHI ’06 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA ’06), p. 604. ACM Press, New York (2006).,
  46. 46.
    Hoggan, E., Stewart, C., Haverinen, L., Jacucci, G., Lantz, V.: Pressages: augmenting phone calls with non-verbal messages, 555–562 (2012).,
  47. 47.
    Israr, A., Zhao, S., Schneider, O.: Exploring embedded haptics for social networking and interactions. In: CHI ’15 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA ’15), pp. 1899–1904. ACM Press, New York (2015).,
  48. 48.
    Felt, A.P., Egelman, S., Wagner, D.: I’ve got 99 problems, but vibration ain’t one: A survey of smartphone User’s concerns. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Security and Privacy in Smartphones and Mobile Devices (SPSM ’12), p. 33. ACM Press, New York (2012).,
  49. 49.
    Schuirmann, D.: On hypothesis testing to determine if the mean of a normal distribution is contained in a known interval. Biometrics 37(3), 617 (1981)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations