Vascular Effects of Progestogens

  • Xiangyan Ruan
  • Alfred O. MueckEmail author
Part of the ISGE Series book series (ISGE)


Epidemiological, experimental, and biologic plausibility support a cardioprotective effect of estrogens in women. Indeed, women are protected until the menopause from the development of coronary artery disease and lag behind men in the incidence of myocardial infarction and sudden death by 20 years. Estradiol (E2) is implicated in this protective effect since at any age postmenopausal women have a greater cardiovascular risk than premenopausal and oophorectomized women not taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Our knowledge regarding the vascular effects of progestogens mainly originates from studies using HRT. Progestogen effects, which are summarized in this review, were assessed according to clinical endpoints, metabolic effects, and influence on vascular markers in vitro or in vivo, respectively.


Hormone therapy Cardiovascular protection Progestogens Vascular biochemical markers 


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Copyright information

© International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Women’s HealthUniversity Hospitals of TuebingenTuebingenGermany

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