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Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

  • Pedro Luiz Mangabeira Albernaz
  • Francisco Zuma e Maia
  • Sergio Carmona
  • Renato Valério Rodrigues Cal
  • Guillermo Zalazar
Chapter

Abstract

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) (otolith disease) is the most common cause of vertigo. Overall, its prevalence ranges from 10.7 to 64 per 100,000 individuals; it is more frequent in women and has a peak incidence in the 50–60-year age group. The labyrinthine mechanical disorder which causes BPPV is due to the presence of otoconial debris detached from the utricular macula and floating freely inside the semicircular canals (canalolithiasis) or attached to the ampullary cupula (cupulolithiasis). According to the location of the otoconial debris, it is classified into anterior canal BPPV (AC-BPPV), posterior canal BPPV (PC-BPPV), and lateral canal BPPV (LC-BPPV). Repositioning maneuvers are the preferred method for treatment, with high effective rate and low risk. They act through the different changes of head position to make the otolith(s) go back to the utricle.

Keywords

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Pathophysiology Repositioning maneuvers 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pedro Luiz Mangabeira Albernaz
    • 1
  • Francisco Zuma e Maia
    • 2
  • Sergio Carmona
    • 3
  • Renato Valério Rodrigues Cal
    • 4
  • Guillermo Zalazar
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyAlbert Einstein Hospital São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Otology / NeurotologyClínica MaiaCanoasBrazil
  3. 3.NeurotologyFundación San Lucas para la NeurocienciaRosárioArgentina
  4. 4.Curso de MedicinaCentro Universitário do ParáBelémBrazil
  5. 5.Department of Neurology in Hospital de San LuisFundación San Lucas para la NeurocienciaRosarioArgentina

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