Advertisement

Evaluating Cognition and Performance Through Cognitive Domains

  • Sarah E. FoidelEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Assessment of people with a neurocognitive disorder is a complicated and interprofessional process. Health professionals lack a common language to describe cognitive deficits limiting interprofessional communication and care planning. This chapter details a unique approach by using the DSM-5’s cognitive domains as a framework for assessment. In addition, performance-based testing and functional observations are emphasized. Functional assessments are an excellent tool to emphasize strengths allowing robust person-centered care.

Keywords

Functional cognition Cognitive domains Performance-based testing Skill-based testing 

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Arlington: American Psychiatric Pub; 2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Barman A, Chatterjee A, Bhide R. Cognitive impairment and rehabilitation strategies after traumatic brain injury. Indian J Psychol Med. 2016;38(3):172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baum C, Katz N. Occupational therapy approach to assessing the relationship between cognition and function. In: Marcotte TD, Grant I, editors. Neuropsychology of everyday functioning. New York: Guilford Press; 2010. p. 62–90.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baum CM, Connor LT, Morrison T, Hahn M, Dromerick AW, Edwards DF. Reliability, validity, and clinical utility of the Executive Function Performance Test: a measure of executive function in a sample of people with stroke. Am J Occup Ther. 2008;62(4):446–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fazio RH. Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behavior: the MODE model as an integrative framework. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 23. San Diego: Academic Press; 1990. p. 75–109.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Giles GM, Edwards DF, Morrison MT, Baum C, Wolf TJ. Screening for functional cognition in postacute care and the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation (IMPACT) Act of 2014. Am J Occup Ther. 2017;71(5):7105090010p1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. APPROVED: memory care requirements for nursing care center accreditation. Jt Comm Perspect. 2014;34(1):8.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Posner MI, Rothbart MK. Temperament and brain networks of attention. Phil Trans R Soc B. 2018;373(1744):20170254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Bibliography

  1. 9.
    Alzheimer’s Association. Alzheimer’s disease facts and figures. Alzheimer’s Dement. 2012;8:131–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 10.
    Baker R, Holloway J, Holtkamp C, Larsson A, Hartman LC, Pearce R, et al. Effects of multi-sensory stimulation for people with dementia. J Adv Nurs. 2003;43(5):465–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 11.
    Bate H. Ensuring quality of life for people with severe dementia. Nurs Resident Care. 2013;15(3):157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 12.
    Bédard A, Landreville P, Voyer P, Verreault R, Vézina J. Reducing verbal agitation in people with dementia: evaluation of an intervention based on the satisfaction of basic needs. Aging Ment Health. 2011;15(7):855–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 13.
    Brodaty H, Arasaratnam C. Meta-analysis of nonpharmacological interventions for neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Am J Psychiatr. 2012;169(9):946–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 14.
    Cohen-Mansfield J, Jensen B, Resnick B, Norris M. Knowledge of and attitudes toward nonpharmacological interventions for treatment of behavior symptoms associated with dementia: a comparison of physicians, psychologists, and nurse practitioners. The Gerontologist. 2012;52(1):34–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 15.
    Cooper C, Mukadam N, Katona C, Lyketsos CG, Ames D, Rabins P, et al. Systematic review of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions to improve quality of life of people with dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2012;1(1):1–15.Google Scholar
  8. 16.
    Corcoran M, editor. Neurocognitive disorder (NCD): Interventions to support occupational performance (Neurorehabilitation in occupational therapy series), vol. 1. Bethesda: AOTA Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  9. 17.
    Desai AK, Schwartz L, Grossberg GT. Behavioral disturbance in dementia. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2012;14(4):298–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 18.
    Doody RS, Stevens JC, Beck C, Dubinsky RM, Kaye JA, Gwyther LMSW, et al. Practice parameter: management of dementia (an evidence-based review) report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2001;56(9):1154–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 19.
    Dooley NR, Hinojosa J. Improving quality of life for persons with Alzheimer’s disease and their family caregivers: brief occupational therapy intervention. Am J Occup Ther. 2004;58(5):561–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 20.
    Gauthier S, Cummings J, Ballard C, Brodaty H, Grossberg G, Robert P, Lyketsos C. Management of behavioral problems in Alzheimer’s disease. Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22(3):346–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 21.
    Gitlin LN, Winter L, Dennis MP, Hodgson N, Hauck WW. Targeting and managing behavioral symptoms in individuals with dementia: a randomized trial of a nonpharmacological intervention. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:1465–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 22.
    Hammar LM, Emami A, Götell E, Engström G. The impact of caregivers’ singing on expressions of emotion and resistance during morning care situations in persons with dementia: an intervention in dementia care. J Clin Nurs. 2011;20(7–8):969–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 23.
    Husebo BS, Ballard C, Sandvik R, Nilsen OB, Aarsland D. Efficacy of treating pain to reduce behavioral disturbances in residents of nursing homes with dementia: cluster randomized clinical trial. Br Med J. 2011;343:d4065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 24.
    Jordan A, Hughes J, Pakresi M, Hepburn S, O’Brien JT. The utility of PAINAD in assessing pain in a UK population with severe dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011;26(2):118–26.Google Scholar
  17. 25.
    Kim H, Chang M, Rose K, Kim S. Predictors of caregiver burden in caregivers of individuals with dementia. J Adv Nurs. 2011;68(4):846–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 26.
    Kopp B, Rösser N, Tabeling S, Stürenburg HJ, de Haan B, Karnath HO, Wessel K. Errors on the trail making test are associated with right hemispheric frontal lobe damage in stroke patients. Behav Neurol. 2015;2015:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 27.
    Kverno KS, Black BS, Nolan MT, Rabins PV. Research on treating neuropsychiatric symptoms of advanced dementia with non-pharmacological strategies, 1998–2008: a systematic literature review. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21(5):825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 28.
    Kverno KS, Rabins PV, Blass DM, Hicks K, Black BS. Prevalence and treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in hospice-eligible nursing home residents with advanced dementia. J Gerontol Nurs. 2008;34(12):8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 29.
    Leveille SG, Jones RN, Hausdorff JM, McLean R, Kiely DK, Gagnon M, Milberg WP. Measuring attention in very old adults using the Test of Everyday Attention. Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn. 2017;24(5):543–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 30.
    Letts L, Edwards M, Berenyi J, Moros K, O’Neill C, O’Toole C, McGrath C. Using occupations to improve quality of life, health and wellness, and client and caregiver satisfaction for people with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Am J Occup Ther. 2011;65(5):497–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 31.
    Livingston G, Johnston K, Katona C, Paton J, Lyketsos CG. Systematic review of psychological approaches to the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Am J Psychiatr. 2005;162(11):1996–2021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 32.
    McKhann GM, Knopman DS, Chertkow H, Hyman BT, Jack CR, Kawas CH, et al. The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2011;7(3):263–9.Google Scholar
  25. 33.
    Olazarán J, Reisberg B, Clare L, Cruz I, Peña-Casanova J, del Ser T, et al. Nonpharmacological therapies in Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review of efficacy. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2010;30(2):161–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 34.
    O’Neil ME, Freeman M, Christensen V, Telerant R, Addleman A, Kansagara D. Non-pharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms of dementia: a systematic review of the evidence. VA-ESP Project# 05–22; 2012.Google Scholar
  27. 35.
    Pieper M, Achterberg W, Francke A, van der Steen J, Scherder E, Kovach C. The implementation of the serial trial intervention for pain and challenging behaviour in advanced dementia patients (STA OP!): a clustered randomized controlled trial. BMC Geriatr. 2011;11(1):12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 36.
    Rabins PV, Blacker D, Rovner BW, Rummans T, Schneider LS, Tariot PN, et al. American Psychiatric Association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164(12 Suppl):5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 37.
    Robichaud L, Hébert R, Desrosiers J. Efficacy of a sensory integration program on behaviors of inpatients with dementia. Am J Occup Ther. 1994;48(4):355–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 38.
    Rodakowski J, Reynolds CF III, Lopez OL, Butters MA, Dew MA, Skidmore ER. Developing a non-pharmacological intervention for individuals with mild cognitive impairment. J Appl Gerontol. 2018;37(5):665–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 39.
    Simpson MR, Kovach CR, Stetzer F. Predictors of nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments stopped and started among nursing home residents with dementia. Res Gerontol Nurs. 2012;5(2):130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 40.
    Spijker A, Vernooij-Dassen M, Vasse E, Adang E, Wollersheim H, Grol R, Verhey F. Effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions in delaying the institutionalization of patients with dementia: a meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(6):1116–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 41.
    Wesson J, Clemson L, Brodaty H, Reppermund S. Estimating functional cognition in older adults using observational assessments of task performance in complex everyday activities: a systematic review and evaluation of measurement properties. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2016;68:335–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 42.
    Tappen RM, Roach KE, Applegate EB, Stowell P. Effect of a combined walking and conversation intervention on functional mobility of nursing home residents with Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2000;14(4):196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 43.
    Cicerone KD, et al. Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: updated review of the literature from 1998 through 2002. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005;86(8):1681–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 44.
    Earhart CA. Allen diagnostic module. Colchester: S&S Worldwide; 2011. p. 609–39. (2006).Google Scholar
  37. 45.
    Fechter F, Giles G, Lewis C. In: Corcorane MA, editor. “Neuroanatomy of neurocognitive disorders” Neurocognitive disorder: intervention to support occupational performance; 2014. p. 1–22. MD.Google Scholar
  38. 46.
    Wolf TJ, editor. Stroke: Interventions to support occupational performance (Neurorehabilitation in occupational therapy series), vol. 2. Bethesda: AOTA Press; 2014.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Occupational TherapyPacific UniversityHillsboroUSA

Personalised recommendations