Advertisement

Urban Food Systems

  • Stephen B. BaloghEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the local and distant impacts of urban food consumption, introduces the concept of food deserts in cities (lack of access to healthy food), and describes efforts to improve the sustainability and resilience of urban food systems to extreme events and supply disruptions.

Keywords

Urban Food systems Resiliency Sustainability Environmental impact Environmental justice 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Kate Mulvaney, Nate Merrill, and Laura Erban for their review and suggestions which greatly improved this chapter. The views expressed in this chapter are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Supplementary material

458872_1_En_14_MOESM1_ESM.docx (164 kb)
Field_Exercise_7_NitrogenFlux In the Urban Ecosystem (DOCX 165 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    Balogh SB, Hall CA (2016) Food and energy. In: Steier G, Patel K (eds) International food law and policy. Springer, New York, pp 321–358Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buzby J, Farah-Wells H, Hyman J (2014) The estimated amount, value, and calories of postharvest food losses at the retail and consumer levels in the United States. United States Department of Agriculture, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tilman D, Cassman KG, Matson PA, Naylor R, Polasky S (2002) Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature 418:671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Meyfroidt P, Lambin EF, Erb K-H, Hertel TW (2013) Globalization of land use: distant drivers of land change and geographic displacement of land use. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 5:438–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Foley JA et al (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dubois O (2011) The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture: managing systems at risk. Earthscan, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edgerton MD (2009) Increasing crop productivity to meet global needs for feed, food, and fuel. Plant Physiol 149:7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Canning PN, Charles A, Huang S, Polenske KR, Waters A (2010) Energy use in the US food system. United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Steinhart JS, Steinhart CE (1974) Energy use in the US food system. Science 184:307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hamilton A, Balogh SB, Maxwell A, Hall CA (2013) Efficiency of edible agriculture in Canada and the US over the past three and four decades. Energies 6:1764–1793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tilman D, Clark M (2014) Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature 515:518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pimentel D, Pimentel M (2003) Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment. Am J Clin Nutr 78:660S–663SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2010) Overview of U.S. livestock, poultry, and aquaculture production in 2010 and statistics on major commodities. USDA, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2009) Access to affordable and nutritious food: measuring and understanding food deserts and their consequences. Report to congress Washington, DC. Diane Publishing, DerbyGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    NASS, USDA (2017) Quick stats [database]. USDA ERS—US Bioenergy Statistics: Table 5--Corn supply, disappearance and share of total corn used for ethanol. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/us-bioenergy-statistics
  16. 16.
    Jerla C, Prairie J, Adams P (2012) Colorado River basin water supply and demand study: study report. US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aguilar B, Klocker J (2000) The Costa Rican coffee industry. In: Hall CAS, Leon Perez C, Leclerc G (eds) Quantifying sustainable development. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 595–627Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lagi M, Bertrand K, Bar-Yam Y (2011) The food crises and political instability in North Africa and the Middle East. New England Complex Systems Institute, Cambridge, MA (necsi.edu)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pirog R, Van Pelt T, Enshayan K, Cook E (2001) Food, fuel, and freeways. Leopold center for sustainable agriculture. Iowa State University, AmesGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2011) Evaluation of urban soils: suitability for green infrastructure or urban agriculture. EPA Publication No. 905R1103. https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100GOTW.TXT
  21. 21.
    Daly PA (1981) Agricultural employment: has the decline ended? Mon Labor Rev 104:11–17Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2017) Employment Projections - Employment by major industry sector. https://www.bls.gov/emp/tables/employment-by-major-industry-sector.htm
  23. 23.
    United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2016) Municipal solid waste. https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/web/html/
  24. 24.
    Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bullock JM, Dhanjal-Adams KL, Milne A, Oliver TH, Todman LC, Whitmore AP, Pywell RF (2017) Resilience and food security: rethinking an ecological concept. J Ecol 105:880–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Frazier GL, Spekman RE, O’neal CR (1988) Just-in-time exchange relationships in industrial markets. J Mark 52(4):52–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gregory CA, Coleman-Jensen A (2017) Food insecurity, chronic disease, and health among working-age adultsGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jyoti DF, Frongillo EA, Jones SJ (2005) Food insecurity affects school children’s academic performance, weight gain, and social skills. J Nutr 135:2831–2839CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Balogh S, Hall CA, Guzman A, Balcarce D, Hamilton A (2012) The potential of Onondaga County to feed its own population and that of Syracuse New York: past, present and future. In: Pimentel D (ed) Global economic and environmental aspects of biofuels. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 273Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pelletier N, Pirog R, Rasmussen R (2010) Comparative life cycle environmental impacts of three beef production strategies in the upper Midwestern United States. Agric Syst 103:380–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hall M, Sun N, Balogh S, Foley C, Li R (2013) Assessing the tradeoffs for an urban green economy. In: Richardson RB (ed) Building a green economy: perspectives from ecological economics. Michigan State University Press Google Scholar, East LansingGoogle Scholar

Other Recommended Reading

  1. Allen W, Wilson C (2013) The good food revolution: growing healthy food, people, and communities. Gotham Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Astyk S, Newton A (2009) A nation of farmers: defeating the food crisis on American soil. Consortium Book Sales & DistGoogle Scholar
  3. Pimentel D, Pimentel MH (2007) Food, energy, and society. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  4. Pollan M (2006) The omnivore’s dilemma: a natural history of four meals. Penguin, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Smil V (2002) Feeding the world: a challenge for the twenty-first century. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.US EPA, Office of Research and Development, Atlantic Ecology DivisionNarragansettUSA

Personalised recommendations